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The list that follows is meant as a complement to the Timeline of Art History , not as a comprehensive historical reference. It presents a simplified picture of dynastic succession in a small number of large European principalities. The names of numerous princes who ruled smaller states are not to be found here, nor are the names of many pretenders, regents, and fully legitimate monarchs whose reigns were short or ambitions otherwise stifled.
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Activar el modo de accesibilidad. Desactivar el modo de accesibilidad. Omitir los comandos de cinta. Saltar al contenido principal. Buscar Cerrar. The Monarchy through History.
Start The Monarchy through History. T he Monarchy in its different conceptions and modes, has been the prevalent form of government or the institution holding the utmost political power in Spain and its adjacent territories throughout history.
Hence the political and institutional history of Spain, like that of other European countries, is, in part, the history of its Monarchy and its kings and queens. Willem Blaeu. Dating back to mythical kingdoms in antiquity, such as Tartessos in the south of the mainland, or the peoples traditionally settled all over Iberia since the Metal Ages Iberians, Celts and others largely employed monarchical forms of government and of defining power and structure.
The Roman civilisation on the mainland at the end of the 3rd century B. This was a political construction that was ostensibly monarchical from the full incorporation of Hispania in the times of the first emperor, Augustus.
Hispania gave Rome some of its most important emperors, such as Trajan who enlarged its frontiers from the British Isles to Mesopotamia, including what is today Romania ; Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius, famous for the cultural, philosophical and artistic inheritance they bequeathed; or Theodosius the Great, who split the empire into two parts, thus enabling the existence and continuity of a great State bearing the Greek-Latin mark in the eastern world, the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire, until the dawning of the Middles Ages midway through the 15th century.
The collapse and disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, largely fostered by the incursion of Germanic tribes, also organised monarchically, led to the articulation of independent kingdoms in the former Roman provinces. In the 5th century AD, Hispania became home to the Visigoths, a people indigenous to the north of Europe that had been migrating through Roman territory for several centuries. Subsequently, in the 6th and 7th centuries, after defeating some rival powers such as the Suebi Kingdom, settled in the Northwest of the mainland, and after unifying legal codes to govern all the inhabitants regardless of whether they were of Roman or Goth origin and achieving religious unity in Catholicism after Arianism had been eventually pushed aside, a form of political, territorial, legal and religious unity was achieved in Hispania with King Leovigildo and his successors.
The Hispanic-Goth Monarchy, which was acknowledged politically and legally as the heir and successor to Rome on the Peninsula, was the first effective realisation of an independent Kingdom or State of wholly Hispanic territories and scope.
Its crown or utmost leader was appointed by election, its monarchs being selected from within a particular lineage. The collapse of the Hispanic-Goth Kingdom, due to its internal conflicts and the Muslim conquest gave rise to the process conventionally and historically known as the Reconquest. Several Christian hubs in the north of the mainland, particularly in Asturias, founded kingdoms and monarchically governed spaces which, gradually and without respite, went on to recover the mainland, their figurehead being the extinct Hispanic-Goth Kingdom and their object its full restoration to power.
Hence the mainland and islands saw the founding of other kingdoms, such as Portugal, Valencia and Majorca. Worthy of mention is the fact that both in Christian Hispania, heir of the Hispanic-Roman and Hispanic-Goth tradition and in al-Andalus, institutions were founded with monarchic competencies of the highest level existing at that time.
The culmination of the Reconquest at the end of the 15th century resulted in the disappearance of the Spanish-Muslim space and the political and territorial convergence of the most important Spanish crowns Castile and Aragon under the same monarchs, the Catholic Monarchs, Isabel and Fernando. This merger of monarchies was shortly joined by Navarre, and, with Felipe II, at the end of the following century by the Kingdom of Portugal, thus achieving the full union of the Hispanic or Iberian Peninsula, under a shared Monarchy.
At that time, and also later on, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Spanish Monarchy took on a world-wide dimension with the subsequent inclusion of lands and kingdoms in different continents. The peoples and territories in America were organised like those in Andalusia after the conquests in the times of Fernando III the Saint.
Catholic, the traditional title or form of address granted to the Monarchs of Spain by Pope Alexander VI in to Fernando, Isabel and their successors, referred in its time to the specific religion professed by the Monarchs and their defence of the Catholic faith, although according to certain interpretations it also inferred their ecumenical and universalist nature at a time in which, for the first time ever in the world, a political power, in this case the Spanish Monarchy, had attained a global dimension, with sovereignty and effective presence in all the continents America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania and in the main seas and oceans the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Mediterranean.
The specific titles used by the Kings of Spain were fruit of this accumulation and incorporation process undertaken by the Spanish Monarchy. Together with the short title - King of Spain or of the Spains, which makes summary reference to the Monarchy's place of origin, the grand or long title was used officially in each reign up until the 19th century.
Said long title explicitly mentioned the territories and titles with which the Spanish monarch reigned, with which his ancestors had reigned or over which he was considered to have legitimate rights.
It should be mentioned that article As the apex of the monarchic state, in medieval times and in the Old Regime, the Crown enjoyed the utmost and broadest governmental functions and hence a special responsibility both as regards the successes and failures.
Like other medieval Hispanic kings, however, due to the traditional heritage view of the Monarchy, he ordered that his domains be split up upon his death. Alfonso X the Wise fostered culture and the arts, as well as laying the foundations for legislation and taxation in a new kind of monarchic state. Jaime I of Aragon and his successors strengthened the political union of the territories of the Aragonese Crown and their overseas expansion into the Mediterranean.
Now in the Modern Age, the Catholic Monarchs, in addition to completing the Reconquest and enabling the discovery of the New World, drove the passing of the Derecho de Gentes People's Law -the embryo and basis for International Law- as well as a Indiano legislation, new in its time for the protection of rights it advocated and the alternative of expulsion or conversion to Christianity for the Jewish population in Spain.
Carlos I, who with Spain's political, economic and military resources added the Holy Roman Empire and above all the great American empires of Mexico and Peru to his domains, became one of the most famous monarchs in universal history, better known as Carlos V the Emperor.
He, however, extinguished the movements which were fighting in Spain for the freedoms of the cities in around After the illuminated period of the 18th century, driven by sovereigns like Felipe V, Fernando VI, Carlos III and Carlos IV came times of political, economic and social unrest, fruit of the consequences of the war against Napoleon Bonaparte's armies between and The transition from the Old Regime to Liberal State is also the transition from sovereignty as the King's right to sovereignty as an attribute pertaining exclusively to the Nation, as was laid down in Cadiz in the constitution of In this transition process of making the Spanish people the holders of the nation's sovereignty, the monarch was consolidated as the utmost institutional and personal representative of the Sovereign Nation.
This transfer is fundamental for understanding the King's eventual identity today as Head of State and the utmost representative of the Nation in which sovereignty resides. During the 19th century Spain, which would experience a brief Republican period, was witness to internal wars between supporters of Isabel and Carlos.
Meanwhile, during the reign of Isabel II, Spain underwent transcendental economic, political and social changes by establishing monetary, tax and institutional systems suitable for fostering the process of industrialisation based on the great advances in transport particularly with the railway and in communications and was accompanied by legislation favouring creativity and business initiatives.
They were years of great economic growth, grounded on Spain's industrialisation, favoured by its neutrality in World War I. In , eight years after the end of the Spanish Civil War and at the height of the dictatorship, it was laid down by law that Spain was a State constituted as a Kingdom.
The decades that have elapsed since then are considered to be those of greatest economic and social progress in the whole of Spain's contemporary history. Spain's royal lineage, which has its roots in the royal families of the ancient Hispanic Christian kingdoms of the High Middle Ages, was attached in each period of history to different family dynasties, each one with a specific family name used to designate the Royal Family.
King Felipe VI, with the general body of Spanish monarchs from the Modern and Contemporary Ages and with the most remote monarchs of the medieval kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula.
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The House of Wessex family tree precedes this family tree and the family tree of the British royal family follows it. For a simplified family tree see family tree of British monarchs and alternative successions of the English and British crown for unsuccessful claimants' family trees. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Royal or noble family trees.
He became heir to the throne on the death of his father in , succeeding his grandfather, George II, in He was the third Hanoverian monarch and the first one to be born in England and to use English as his first language. George III is widely remembered for two things: losing the American colonies and going mad. This is far from the whole truth. George's direct responsibility for the loss of the colonies is not great. These policies were largely due to the financial burdens of garrisoning and administering the vast expansion of territory brought under the British Crown in America, the costs of a series of wars with France and Spain in North America, and the loans given to the East India Company then responsible for administering India. The declaration of American independence on 4 July , the end of the war with the surrender by British forces in , and the defeat which the loss of the American colonies represented, could have threatened the Hanoverian throne.
The following is a simplified family tree of the English and British monarchs. For a more detailed chart see: Family tree of English monarchs); Family tree of.
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Thanks to a history of intermarriage, Europe's royal families are all tied to each other in some way. To explore how the monarchies are connected, Expedia created an interactive family tree that lets you see the ties between different royals. While the feature is geared toward exploring the family ties of Nordic royalty, since European monarchs are basically all related, just about everyone appears on the same family tree eventually. Royally Connected by Expedia. To expand the tree and explore different monarchs' ancestry, click the plus signs above their photos.
This timeline details all Kings and Queens of England and Britain from to present day. The Kings and Queens of England also ruled Ireland from to when the Republic of Ireland broke from the monarchy, Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom retained the monarchy. First published ; updated and republished May 12 — Updated — Feb 18, pm. Heather Y Wheeler. Kings and Queens of England — Present Day.
The following is a simplified family tree of the English and British monarchs. For kings before Alfred, see House of Wessex family tree.
Он кивнул: - Чтобы предупредить. - Предупредить. Он же вас ненавидит.
Паника заставила Сьюзан действовать. У нее резко запершило в горле, и в поисках выхода она бросилась к двери. Переступив порог, она вовремя успела ухватиться за дверную раму и лишь благодаря этому удержалась на ногах: лестница исчезла, превратившись в искореженный раскаленный металл.
Хейл улыбнулся: - Ну конечно… Принцип Бергофского. - А также здравый смысл! - отрезала .
Коммандер Стратмор погиб. - Справедливость восторжествовала, как в дешевой пьесе. - Успокойтесь, Джабба, - приказал директор, - и доложите ситуацию.
Выражение его лица тут же смягчилось. - Сьюзан, извини. Это кошмар наяву. Я понимаю, ты расстроена из-за Дэвида. Я не хотел, чтобы ты узнала об этом .
В этой недоступной для посторонних базе данных хранились чертежи ультрасовременного оружия, списки подлежащих охране свидетелей, данные полевых агентов, подробные предложения по разработке тайных операций.
In she surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning monarch in British history.