File Name: pulse digital and switching waveforms .zip
Published by McGraw-Hill. Written in English.
Pular no carrossel. Anterior no carrossel. Enviado por Srihitha Reddy. Denunciar este documento. Baixar agora. Pesquisar no documento. Harman and J, G. This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill. Hill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. These nonsinusoidal signals find extensive application in such fields as computers, control systems, counting and timing systems, data-processing systems, digital instrumentation, pulse communications, radar, telemetry, television, and in many areas of experimental research.
Methods are presented for the generation of very narrow nano- second or microsecond pulses and of wider millisecond or second gates or square waves. Techniques are also given for the generation of a variety of other waveforms. Having been generated, a waveform must be processed in some way in order to per- form a useful function. For example, it may be necessary to transmit the signal from one location to another, to amplify it, to select a portion of it in voltage, to choose a section of it in time, to combine it with other signals in order to perform a logic operation, to use it to syn- chronize a system, and so forth.
All these processes are studied in detail in this text. The reader, after becoming acquainted with this notation, may wish temporarily to omit the rest of the first chapter. He may, instead, prefer to review each selected topic individually when a reference is made to it at a later point in the text. The subjects covered in Chapter 1 include network theorems, the small-signal equivalent circuits of tubes and transistors including the correlation between transistor low-frequency h parameters and the high-frequency hybrid-II circuit elements , some very elementary feedback amplifier considerations, and the graphical methods of analysis.
Included are resistive, capacitive, and inductive networks Chapter 2 , pulse transformers and delay lines Chapter 3 , and amplifiers Chapters 4 and 5. A particularly detailed study of transistor wideband amplifiers including compensation techniques is made. As back- ground material for the nonlinear wave-shaping cireuits which are to follow, an extensive summary of the steady-state switching characteristics of devices is given Chapter 6.
Included are the semiconductor diode, the avalanche diode, the vacuum diode, a lengthy study of the transistor at cutoff and in saturation, the avalanche transistor, and the vacuum tube.
Analyses of wave- shaping and switching functions which can be performed with nonlinear ele- ments are introduced in the next two chapters: clipping and nonregenerative comparator circuits Chapter 7 and clamping and switching circuits Chapter 8. The study of digital operations begins in Chapter 9 with logic circuits, including Boolean algebra.
Bistable multivibrators are treated in Chapter These include the tunnel diode, the unijunetion tran- sistor, the four-layer diode, the silicon-controlled switch and its variants , and the avalanche transistor.
Switching circuits constructed from these negative-resistance devices are discussed in Chapter The next two chapters treat voltage and current time-base generators including the phan- tastron circuit, the Miller integrator, and the bootstrap circuit. Chapter 16 discusses the blocking oscillator and includes the multiar configuration. Chap- ter 17 considers gates for sampling or transmission of signals and introduces the field-effect transistor as an important device for these applications.
The next two chapters deal with counting, timing, synchronization, and frequency division. The final chapter 20 treats the transient switching characteristics of diodes and transistors, including the snap-off diode and the hot-carrier diode. The emphasis throughout this chapter is on the charge-control method of analysis.
Hee In summary, this book presents a thorough study of the following basic cireuits or techniques: transmission networks, differentiating cireuits includ- ing the transmission-line differentiator , clippers limiters , comparators dis- eriminators , clampers d-e restorers , the transistor or tube as a switch, logic circuits AND, oR, NOT, NAND, diode matrices, etc.
The signals considered range from the very slow millisecond or longer to the very fast nanosecond. Semiconductor and tube circuits are presented side by side throughout the text, but with the principal emphasis on transistors. The basic philosophy adopted is to analyze a circuit on a physical basis in order to provide a clear understanding and intuitive feeling for its behavior.
It is assumed that the student has a background in mathematics that includes the study of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. In order to avoid distractions from the principal concern of the analysis of electronic circuits, algebraic and other mathematical manipulation has been kept to a minimum.
Solutions to differential equations which describe the circuits under study are given without analysis, but the response indicated by these equations has been plotted and studied in detail. However, for the most part, real commercially available device characteristics are employed.
In this way, the reader may become familiar with the order of magnitude of practical device parameters, the variability of these parameters within a given type and with a change in temperature, the effect of the inevi- table shunt capacitance in circuits, the consequence of minority-carrier storage in semiconductor devices, the precautions which must be taken when dealing with nanosecond pulses, the effect of input and output impedances and loading on circuit operation, ete.
These considerations are of utmost importance to the student or practicing engineer since the circuits to be designed must func- tion properly and reliably in the physical world rather than under hypothetical or ideal circumstances.
In addition, the homework problems give the student experience in the analysis and the design of the circuits discussed in the text and of other con- figurations to perform similar functions. In almost all numerical problems realistic parameter values and specifications have been chosen. Considerable care has been exercised in the development of these problems, which the authors consider an integral and important part of the text. It is hoped that through a study of this text and through the experience gained from solving a goodly number of problems, the reader will develop facility with these circuits and sharpen his creativity and ingenuity so that he can arrive at a fairly optimum implementation of the system under consideration.
To cover all the material in the book requires three semesters, at least one of which should be part of an undergraduate electronics sequence. The instructor has a wide range of topies to choose from, and he need not follow the exact sequence in the book. For example, the two chapters 4 and 5 on wide- band amplifiers may be considered too specialized for an undergraduate program or it may be desired that these topics be studied in a communications course , and they may be omitted without particularly disturbing the sequence.
However, so much new material has been added and so extensive and thorough have been the revisions that a new title for the present text seems much more reasonable. About half the topics in this book did not appear in the earlier work, and of the material that was presented there, almost every section has been completely rewritten. This very major overhaul has been made necessary by the rapid developments which have taken place recently in this field, and particularly by the shift in emphasis from vacuum tubes to transistors and other semiconductor devices.
It may be of some interest to note that consideration was given to the advisability of splitting this work into two volumes, each of more moderate size, A questionnaire that sought recommendations concerning the division of the material was addressed to a large number of our academic colleagues. The responses were so divergent that there seemed no alternative but to include all of the topics in one volume. Considerable thought and effort were given to the pedagogy of presen- tation, to the explanation of circuit behavior, to the use of a consistent system of notation, and to the care with which detailed waveforms and other diagrams have been drawn in order to facilitate the use of this book in self-study.
It is hoped that the practicing engineer will find this book of service in updating himself in this field. We are pleased to acknowledge our indebtedness to our colleagues at Columbia University, at The City College, and in industry for many fruitful discussions. In particular, the following persons read various portions of the manuscript and offered a great deal of constructive criticism: G.
Clemehs, R. Gebhardt, J. Hahn, V. Johannes, A. B, Marcovitz, P. Mauzey, I M. Meth, A. C, Ruocchio, and L. Mauzey merits our special gratitude because of the many valuable suggestions he offered and because of the diligence with which he assisted in the chore of proofreading. We express our particular appreciation to Miss S. Silverstein, administra tive assistant of the Electrical Engineering Department at The City College, for her most skillful service in the preparation of the manuscript.
We also thank W. Chen, A. Glaser, J. Millman, and J. Taub for their assistance. A voltage or current waveshape having been generated, it may require processing in some manner. For example, it may be necessary to transmit it from one location to another, to amplify it, to shape it by clipping the top or bottom, to shift its d-c level, to select a portion in time of the waveform, to use it as gate in connection with some other waveform, to perform with it some logic operation, and so forth.
For the most part, the devices and circuits capable of accomplishing the functions referred to above must operate in a highly nonlinear manner, referred to as the switching mode of operation.
No previous acquaintance is assumed, on the part of the reader, with the switching behavior of devices or with the processing of the nonsinusoidal waveforms thereby generated. However, it is assumed that the reader has completed an introductory course in linear circuit analysis and a course in the small-signal theory of electronic devices— diodes, vacuum tubes, and transistors.
For the sake of convenient reference, we summarize in this chapter certain network theorems, device models, concepts, and techniques from electronic circuit theory to which weshall have occasion tomakereference. Weassume the reader's familiarity with these topics and therefore present them without proof or elaboration.
Veo Ver Vana Veo transistor will appear in the same discussion, it is very important that we use a system of notation which is applicable to either device and which devi- ates in a minimal way from contemporary practice. These requirements are met by adhering to the IEEE standards't for semiconductor symbols and adopting?
Only three modifications are required in the tube standards. Second, the plate subscript b is no longer used, but is replaced by P. Third, the grid subscript cis replaced by G. Note that b and care now reserved for base and collector, respectively. Instantaneous values of quantities which vary with time are represented by lowercase letters 7 for current, v for voltage, and p for power. Varying components from some quiescent value are indicated by the lowercase subscript of the proper electrode symbol.
A single subscript is used if the reference electrode is clearly understood. If there is any possibility of ambiguity, the conventional double-subscript notation should be used.
For example, v. Ii the emitter is grounded and all voltages are understood to be measured with respect to ground, then the symbol v.. The ground symbol is N for neutral. The magnitude of the supply voltage is indicated by repeating the electrode subscript.
These two theorems are valid even if the network. The following laws are applicable only for linear circuits, but are valid even if dependent sources are present.
Pular no carrossel. Anterior no carrossel. Enviado por Srihitha Reddy. Denunciar este documento. Baixar agora. Pesquisar no documento. Harman and J, G.
This book describes active and passive devices and circuit configura- tions used for the generation and processing of pulse, digital, and switching waveforms.
While it retains the original flavour of the book, this revised edition also includes discussionson Logic Gate Families, IC Timer and Op-Amp based Multivibrators for up-to-datecoverage. A large number of solved examples, review questions, numerical problems and openbook exam questions are interspersed throughout the text to provide a clear understanding of theconcepts. The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks.
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