File Name: guidance and counselling in schools .zip
Guidance is a service designed to help one individual or group of individuals in making necessary adjustment to environment whether that be within the school or outside it. Guidance is a process of helping individuals through their own efforts to discover and develop their potentialities both for personal happiness and social usefulness.
Generally; Guidance: Is the process of helping an individual to gain self-understanding, self- direction, and to adjust maximally to the environment Biswalo, This help is designed to assist people in deciding where they want to go, what they want to do, how to get to their destination, and how to solve problems arising in their life. Guidance is an umbrella term embracing counselling services, appraisal services, information services, referral services, research and evaluation services, all of which help an individual to grow in self-understanding and consequently in making wise decisions for best adjustment, Sima Guidance as a concept as well as a process According t o Arbuckle et al.
As a concept guidance is concerned with the optimal development of the individual. The Meaning of Counselling Despite the fact that the terms guidance and counselling are used interchangeably, but both terms have different meaning. In a family, parents counsel their children, doctors counsel patients, lawyers to clients and teachers to students.
Counselling is a dynamic and purposeful relationship between two people who approach a mutually defined problem, with mutual consideration of each other to the end that the younger or less mature or more troubled of the two is aided to a self determined resolution to his problem Counselling constitutes three activities like: I - Informing A- Advising and C - Counselling Informing: Here the role of the counselor is to give appropriate and correct information to the clients.
Advising: The counselor suggests appropriate courses of action. Here the counselor offers several options and recommends one according to your aim or interest. Counselling: The counselor helps the students to clarify his needs, feelings or motivations so that he can make the appropriate decision for himself.
So you can think of these three activities as a continuous spectrum of areas which merge into each other. Holistic development of individual: Guidance needs to be provided in the context of total development of personality.
Guidance deals with the development of the whole person. But should also focus on different aspects such as social and physical aspects Thungu et. Recognition of individual differences and dignity: Each individual is different from every other individual. Each individual is the combination of characteristics which provides uniqueness to each person. The dignity of the individual is supreme. The respect for others should come naturally and should not be affected by titles, sex, age or appearance.
In this principle the guidance worker uses tools such as: personal interviews, counselling relationship, test interpretation sessions. Client should not be forced. Forced guidance may lead to stubbornness or lack of cooperation. Guidance is a Continuous and a Sequential Educational Process. Parents, teachers, and community have a role to play in guiding the individual to acquire the right behaviour and values. Guidance given at home should be in harmony with what the teachers and society provide.
If parents advocate obedience at home, then teachers should advocate obedience at school as well. Principles of Counselling i. Human beings have an innate desire for independence and autonomy. They have the ability to control their own destiny and to be fully responsible for their actions.
Aim to excel more. Self-Concept the way individuals perceive themselves should be congruent with their experiences. Guidance is a client centred. It helps an individual to make a wise and informed decision. Guidance begins at home goes on to school and into the society.
Relies on Cooperation, Not on Compulsion Force. It is both generalized and specialized service. Specialized service Generalized service because everyone- teachers, tutors, advisers, deans, parents- play part in the programme. A service meant for everyone. The client knows what is best for him and the counselor is the catalyst in the process of growth It is broader than Counselling.
It is a generic It is a specified service. It services assumes that the problems already exist. Circumstances that dictate the counselor to breach confidential information about the client may include: i. When the client needs hospitalization v. When the law requires doing so. When the client has committed crime e.
Development of Counselling in Tanzania and other places Guidance and counselling, in one way or another, have been used by different people such as parents, teachers, friends and elders since the beginning of human civilization. The concept of guidance is deeply seated in the minds of mankind since the days of Adam and Eve whereby human beings have been keenly alive to the necessity of helping and guiding one another. The guidance programme of the ancient Greeks and Romans, apprenticeship in the middle ages, discipleship among the Muslims and Hindus, all suggest that guidance is not at all recent in origin.
The history of guidance and counselling as a discipline in the world can be traced back from the ancient Greece and Rome with philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. Formal guidance and counselling programme in schools using specialised textbooks is also by no means a new phenomenon.
The genesis of guidance and counselling movement as practiced today began in the United States of America USA at the close of the nineteenth. The services gained momentum in the twentieth century to assist students with their educational development and career aspirations. Pioneers of Counselling Three persons credited as pioneers in Counselling. Frank Parsons, Jesse B. Davis and Clifford Beers. These three persons identified themselves as teachers and social reformer. Their focus was on helping children and young adults to learn about themselves and others, and the world of work.
Their work was built on the idea of moral instruction, on being good and doing right as well as dealing intrapersonal and interpersonal relations. These were turbulant times to help and take steps to do something.
A seminal work in the history of career decision making and counselling is widely accepted to be that of Frank Parsons. He is the most highly recognized individual in vocational counselling. Parsons was characterized as a broad scholar, a persuasive writer, a tireless activist and a great intellectual. He introduced the term vocational guidance. He developed a framework to help individuals decide on a career. The person should have a clear understanding of his or her aptitudes, abilities, interests and limitations Self-Assessment.
The person should be aware of available job opportunities, the requirements and demands of the work, the compasantions given and prospects of the job Study of Options 3.
To match or establish the relationship between these two bodies of information i. Through true reasoning. This is more likely to enusure vocational success. Davis instituted guidance programme in high school to decrease problems created during the industrial revolution. Guidance and counselling services were introduced in America during the industrial revolution, a period of rapid industrial growth, social protests, social reforms and utopian idealism. During that period the large industrial centres attracted immigrant minority and rural populations seeking employment.
After the s and the industrial revolution the world wars were the next major event that had an impact on the development of guidance and counselling services. Guidance and counselling services arose in that context, as a response to the social crisis brought about by the wars. Students and young people, including other war veterans, needed counselling to overcome the traumatic experiences they had undergone together with their families, relatives and friends.
As the decades of the s, s, s, and s unfolded, guidance and counselling in schools started to respond to the national needs and concerns. Social problems including substance abuse, mental health issues, and changing family patterns all pulled and tugged at defining the purpose of the guidance in schools and role of school counsellors. At the same time, economic issues dealing with changing labour force, needs and globalization industry were also present. In this case, counsellors extended their activities beyond vocational advice to problems of social adjustment.
The guidance movement in Africa involved educating the youth about the traditions and the culture of the community. This was done by elders who considered it their social responsibility. The elders depended on their age, knowledge, exposure and expertise. This was often carried out through the use of artistic expressions such as dances, stories, and provocative or non-provocative verbal instructions.
This alienation from their cultural norms, values and beliefs led to behavioural problems which needed intervention services. The service was made an integral part of the educational system and plays a vital role in preventing educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems among secondary school students.
For students to be properly informed, they need the assistance of trained guidance and counselling personnel.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: The study aims to give an overview of available guidance and counseling services in schools of Bangladesh. The study was qualitative in nature. As the underlying motivation of the study was to gain insights about the nature of existing situation of counseling services in schools of Bangladesh, hence the authors gathered information from all categories of school available within the country.
Guidance and counseling is the process which helps the students to know their skills, interests, personality that will help students in further career selection. Guidance is the process in which person able to know their ability, interest, a capacity that will help in the encounter of problems faced by them.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: The total development of a child can only take place in an environment conducive for teaching and learning. It is in realization of the above that all educational services which can promote teaching and learning in schools are given prominent attention by educational planners. Counselling services are among the school educational services. View PDF.
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Guidance and Counselling in Schools: A Response to Change is a comprehensive account of the origins and basis of guidance and counseling in British schools, as well as the principles underlying developments in guidance and counseling. Emphasis is on principles as they manifest themselves within the existent structure, traditions, and potentialities of the British educational system. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a historical overview of vocational guidance in Britain and an assessment of its current and future prospects. The next chapter focuses on the selection examination at plus in secondary education as a major act of educational guidance in Britain, paying particular attention to the criticisms against it and changes in public attitudes toward the selection examination. The influence of social class on educational opportunity is also discussed, along with the trend toward social democracy in education. The remaining chapters explore the practice of classifying children by streaming on the basis of ability and aptitude; teaching and evaluation in the classroom; child-centered education; the child study movement; and the limitations of counseling. This monograph should be of interest to parents, teachers, and students, as well as educational psychologists, school administrators, and policymakers.
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Problems of Adolescence in Secondary Schools. London: Room Helm. Lunenburg, F. C. (). School Guidance and Counseling Services.