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Difference Between Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic Transcription Pdf

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Let us make an in-depth study of transcription synthesis of RNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotic organisms transcription occurs in three phases known as initiation, elongation and termination. This form is called the holoenzyme.

Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes (With Diagram)

Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of transportable complementary RNA replica. Unlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the transcription of all different types of RNA, RNA polymerase in eukaryotes including humans comes in three variations, each translating a different type of gene. A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus that separates the processes of transcription and translation. Eukaryotic transcription occurs within the nucleus where DNA is packaged into nucleosomes and higher order chromatin structures. The complexity of the eukaryotic genome necessitates a great variety and complexity of gene expression control. Eukaryotic transcription proceeds in three sequential stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.

Eukaryotic transcription

In , Robert Hook discovered a cell. Some cells have membrane-bound organelles and some do not have. Depending upon the internal structure of the cell, two types of cells are found in an organism namely Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic. What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells? Cells are also known as 'a small room'. It is the functional and structural unit of life.


Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Translation Figure 1: Transcription initiation in prokaryotes' 70S ribosome.


Prokaryotic Transcription

To understand how gene expression is regulated, we must first understand how a gene codes for a functional protein in a cell. The process occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, just in slightly different manners. Prokaryotic organisms are single-celled organisms that lack a cell nucleus, and their DNA therefore floats freely in the cell cytoplasm.

The general process of transcription can be applied to both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. The basic biochemistry for each is the same; however, the specific mechanisms and regulation of transcription differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This section will compare the process and regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.

Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes perform fundamentally the same process of transcription, with the important difference of the membrane-bound nucleus in eukaryotes. With the genes bound in the nucleus, transcription occurs in the nucleus of the cell and the mRNA transcript must be transported to the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, which lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles, transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Prokaryotes use the same RNA polymerase to transcribe all of their genes.

To understand how gene expression is regulated, we must first understand how a gene becomes a functional protein in a cell. The process occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, just in slightly different fashions. Because prokaryotic organisms lack a cell nucleus, the processes of transcription and translation occur almost simultaneously.

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Genome Size Comparison. • Prokaryotes are generally in the ~ bp size range – see Genome Sizes. • Eukaryotes are more in the ~ bp size range.

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