File Name: urbanization and rural urban migration theory and policy .zip
The current state of Korean internal migration in —75 is examined from three perspectives: 1 where migrants go; 2 who moves; and 3 why they move. It is followed by a closer examination of the experiences that in-migrants to Seoul, the capital city of Korea, undergo in regard to 1 decision-making of migration; 2 job mobility; 3 settlement patterns; and 4 living conditions of squatters. Evaluation of the migration policies named in the Seoul population dispersal and relocation plans leads to a conclusion that they have little concern with the welfare of the urban poor and in-migrants to Seoul.
Urban ization and Rural - Urban Migration : Theory and. Rural - Urban migration accounts for substantial proportion. Urban ization Economies; and ii Localization Economies. Urban ization Economies: It is easier to provide residential. Bigger cities provide higher order of goods and. The higher the order of the goods and. It generates dem and for unskilled and semi-skilled workers.
The role of cities in the development process 3. Urban ization trends and projections 2. The Todaro Migration Model 6. Positive relationship between per-capita income and urbanization g. The share of urban population has increased in both slow growing as well as rapidly growing countries g.
The share of urban population in developing countries is projected to increase rapidly Table 7. Some of the largest cities in the world are located in developing countries Table 7.
The key question is how developing countries are coping with the rapid pace of urbanization — economically, environmentally, and politically. A large section of urban population is deprived of even the basic amenities of water, sanitation, house, and access to health and educational facilities.
A large proportion of urban population in developing countries live in slums Table 7. Factors Behind Rapid Urban ization 1. Rural - Urban migration accounts for substantial proportion of growth in urban population Table 7.
Urban bias in the development strategy is a major cause of rural-urban migration and the increasing proportion of slum dwellers. The Role of Cities: Agglomeration Economies What explains the strong association between urbanization and economic development?
Agglomeration Economies: Benets that rms, workers, and consumers obtain when locating near each other. These benets arise due to economies of scale and network effects. These agglomeration economies are of two types: i Urban ization Economies; and ii Localization Economies Urban ization Economies: It is easier to provide residential infrastructures, schools, health-care and other service activities, and consumer oriented activities.
These benets are general in nature. Localization Economies Localization Economies: Benets accruing to particular sector or particular type of rms from locating in the urban area.
Clustering of rms may lower the cost of production due to bigger market, competing multiple suppliers, greater specialization and division of labor, lower transportation cost, access to specialized services etc. Industrial Districts Industrial Districts: Clustering of rms of same type. Localization economies encourage emergence of industrial districts. Clustering also has spill-over benets: 1. Flexible Specialization: greater opportunity to contract out works 2. Learning: rms can more easily learn from each other regarding production processes, business practices, rules and regulations, business opportunities 3.
Training and Technological Development: easier to develop training facilities; easier to develop, learn and adopt new technologies. Social Capital: easier to resolve shared concerns through collective action. Efcient Urban Scale Industrial districts are quite common in developing countries. Bangalore in India , surgical equipments Sialkot, Pakistan. Some industrial districts are very vibrant and dynamic, but some are not. Whether an industrial district succeeds or not depends on other enabling factors such government rules and regulations, well functioning credit market, transport links etc.
Efcient Urban Scale There are also diseconomies of agglomeration. Additional competition drives down pricing power. Large cities attract problems of crowding and congestion.
There is trade-off between these economies and diseconomies which determines the optimal city size.. Hierarchy of Cities Usually, in any country there are more than one cities. Some are big and some are small. What explains the emergence of cities of different sizes in a country? Urban Hierarchy Model Central Place Theory It is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the size and spacing of cities. Idea is that cities emerge to provide goods and services.
Bigger cities provide higher order of goods and services more durable, valuable and variable as well as variety of goods and services compared to smaller cities, hence the term hierarchy. The theory relies on two concepts: threshold and range. Threshold is the minimum market population or income needed to bring about the selling of a particular good or service. Range is the maximum distance consumers are prepared to travel to acquire goods - at some point the cost or inconvenience will outweigh the need for the good.
Urban Hierarchy Model Central Place Theory Critical assumption is that different goods and services have different threshold and range. They depend on consumer preferences, economies of scale, transportation cost, and dem and for l and. The higher the order of the goods and services, the larger the range of the goods and services, the longer the distance people are willing to travel to acquire them.
Examples of higher order goods are: big shopping malls, designer shops, specialized nancial and government services. Examples for low order goods and services are: newspaper stalls, groceries, bakeries, and post ofces. They are supported by a relatively smaller threshold population and dem and.
Urban Hierarchy Model Central Place Theory The main prediction of the model is that goods and services with higher threshold and range are only located in big cities. Small cities only provide goods and services with lower threshold and range. The Central Place Theory has been criticized for being static; it does not incorporate the temporal aspect in the development of central places.
Furthermore, the theory holds up well when it comes to agricultural areas, but not industrial or postindustrial areas due to their diversied nature of various services etc. The Differentiated Plane Model In this model transport cost plays a critical role. Idea here is that rms locate where the transport cost is minimum. This depends on the available transport links and the nature of industrial products in terms of inputs and output.
Firms with strong forward and backward linkages tend to locate in the same city. Primary processing industries with few inputs tend locate near the source of primary input. Places with favorable transport links rail-heads, ports attract rms. Urban Giantism The previous model suggests that in a country with poor transportation network, there might emerge one or two big cities. Most of the rms and economic activities might be concentrated in one or two big cities.
This may not be efcient from the social point of view. By diversifying the location of rms and economic activities one can reduce the cost of production and commuting as well as congestion.
Urban giantism may lead to rst-city bias, in which the biggest city receives a disproportionate share of public investment, which aggravates the problem of urban giantism.
Causes of Urban Giantism 1. Colonial legacy 2. Industrial policy of import-substitution and high tariff 3. Lack of democracy 4. The main characteristics of the urban informal sector jobs are: 1. According to this view, it is a reection of limited industrial development. With industrialization and development this sector will disappear. Another view envisages more positive role for urban informal sector in the development process. According to this view, this sector allows excess rural labor to escape from extreme rural poverty and underemployment.
It is also a cheap source of inputs and services for the formal sector backward linkage. Also by increasing the income of poor it increases the dem and for goods and services produced by the formal sector. Over time the second view has gained popularity and the urban informal sector is now considered to be vital for reducing poverty and inequality of income.
Advantages of Encouraging Urban Informal Sector 1. Informal sector has higher productivity than the rural sector and generates more surplus. These surplus can be utilized to promote the formal sector. It has low capital-intensity. This sector is quite suitable for the factor endowment of developing countries relatively scarce capital and abundant labor.
It can create employment opportunities much faster. It provides learning experience for both wage workers and self-employed and thus enhances human capital. It generates dem and for unskilled and semi-skilled workers which are again relatively more abundant in developing countries.
Since poor are concentrated in the informal sector, its promotion would ensure more equitable distribution of the benets of development and faster reduction in poverty. Disadvantages of Encouraging Urban Informal Sector 1. Increased migration and aggravating the problem of urban giantism. Increased urban unemployment. Discrimination against formal sector bad in the long run.
Policies to Encourage Urban Informal Sector 1. Remove policies which discourage informal sector.
Library Search. Contribute About Us Sponsor Partners. This essay focuses on the conceptual, empirical, and policy-relevant linkages among urbanization, rural—urban migration, and economic development. First, recent trends and future scenarios for urban population growth are reviewed, with special emphasis on African urbanization. Then, the growth and significance of the urban informal economy and the role of women in informal economic activities are examined. Rural—urban migration is discussed in both a descriptive and an analytical framework; the economic crisis in Africa and its relationship to urbanization and migration are considered. Powered by Sigsiu.
Urbanization and Rural-. Urban Migration: Theory and Policy. AEB Development Economics p icel3.org
Urban ization and Rural - Urban Migration : Theory and. Rural - Urban migration accounts for substantial proportion. Urban ization Economies; and ii Localization Economies. Urban ization Economies: It is easier to provide residential.
Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero, Patience C. This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informant interviews.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In the three decades since the main period of independence in Africa, population distribution and redistribution through migration have remained important and widely recognized features of the population dynamics of the continent.
Although poverty has decreased rapidly during the last decades, thanks to growth and specific policies, it remains a subject of concern.