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Source Language And Target Language Pdf

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The target language is one of the most important element of the translation process.

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source—language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source—language words, grammar , or syntax into the target—language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source—language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts , have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated. Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator.

target language

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source—language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source—language words, grammar , or syntax into the target—language rendering.

On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source—language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts , have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.

Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across" — in this case, of a text from one language to another. Some Slavic languages and the Germanic languages other than Dutch and Afrikaans have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio , substituting their respective Slavic or Germanic root words for the Latin roots.

Strictly speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word.

Nevertheless, "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.

The ancient Greeks distinguished between metaphrase literal translation and paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden — , who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents , for the expressions used in the source language:. When [words] appear But since Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of "imitation", i.

This general formulation of the central concept of translation— equivalence —is as adequate as any that has been proposed since Cicero and Horace , who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome , famously and literally cautioned against translating "word for word" verbum pro verbo. Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages , and adapters in various periods especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century , translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents —"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" e.

In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes , and hence word order —when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice , or vice versa.

The grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages [14] e. English, French , German and "free-word-order" languages [15] e. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.

Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are " untranslatable " among the modern European languages. Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them.

However, due to shifts in ecological niches of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. The translator's role as a bridge for "carrying across" values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence , the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translator's role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist.

The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as Cicero. Dryden observed that "Translation is a type of drawing after life If translation be an art, it is no easy one. In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator must know both languages , as well as the science that he is to translate; and finding that few translators did, he wanted to do away with translation and translators altogether.

The translator of the Bible into German, Martin Luther — , is credited with being the first European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language. Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, "it has been axiomatic" that one translates only toward his own language.

Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating. The Scottish historian Alexander Tytler , in his Essay on the Principles of Translation , emphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries. The translator's special role in society is described in a posthumous essay by "Poland's La Fontaine ", the Roman Catholic Primate of Poland , poet, encyclopedist , author of the first Polish novel, and translator from French and Greek, Ignacy Krasicki :.

Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions. The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations. Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments.

Also, though heavily influenced by Western traditions and practiced by translators taught in Western-style educational systems, Chinese and related translation traditions retain some theories and philosophies unique to the Chinese tradition. Traditions of translating material among the languages of ancient Egypt , Mesopotamia , Assyria Syriac language , Anatolia , and Israel Hebrew language go back several millennia.

There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh c. There is a separate tradition of translation in South , Southeast and East Asia primarily of texts from the Indian and Chinese civilizations , connected especially with the rendering of religious, particularly Buddhist , texts and with the governance of the Chinese empire. Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation.

In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system.

Notable is the Japanese kanbun , a system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers. Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government.

Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry [writes Link] must simply be set aside as untranslatable. The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is another important but untranslatable dimension.

Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei with More Ways ], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle.

Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness Another imponderable is how to imitate the , rhythm in which five- syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read.

Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting. Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry. Each syllable character belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring.

Once the untranslatables have been set aside, the problems for a translator, especially of Chinese poetry, are two: What does the translator think the poetic line says? And once he thinks he understands it, how can he render it into the target language? Most of the difficulties, according to Link, arise in addressing the second problem, "where the impossibility of perfect answers spawns endless debate. At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem.

Chinese characters, in avoiding grammatical specificity, offer advantages to poets and, simultaneously, challenges to poetry translators that are associated primarily with absences of subject , number , and tense. It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects; the reader or listener infers a subject.

The grammars of some Western languages, however, require that a subject be stated although this is often avoided by using a passive or impersonal construction. Weinberger points out, however, that when an "I" as a subject is inserted, a "controlling individual mind of the poet" enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line.

Without a subject, he writes, "the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader. Nouns have no number in Chinese. Chinese verbs are tense -less: there are several ways to specify when something happened or will happen, but verb tense is not one of them. For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity.

According to Link, Weinberger's insight about subjectlessness—that it produces an effect "both universal and immediate"—applies to timelessness as well. Link proposes a kind of uncertainty principle that may be applicable not only to translation from the Chinese language, but to all translation:. Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved.

Any translation except machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values. Weinberger [ Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires.

Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic. In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions.

Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries of close contacts and exchanges. Especially after the Renaissance , Europeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins.

Arabic, and to a lesser degree Persian, became important sources of material and perhaps of techniques for revitalized Western traditions, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions. In the 19th century, after the Middle East 's Islamic clerics and copyists. Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one. In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge.

Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream of information on virtually anything that interested them. Between and The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi —73 , who had spent five years in Paris in the late s, teaching religion to Muslim students.

This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention. The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: the word for airplane, for example, has the same root as the word for bird.

The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax, and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions. Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism , writes Christopher de Bellaigue , "with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness.

It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world. One of the most influential liberal Islamic thinkers of the time was Muhammad Abduh — , Egypt's senior judicial authority—its chief mufti —at the turn of the 20th century and an admirer of Darwin who in visited Darwin's exponent Herbert Spencer at his home in Brighton. Spencer's view of society as an organism with its own laws of evolution paralleled Abduh's ideas. After World War I , when Britain and France divided up the Middle East's countries, apart from Turkey, between them, pursuant to the Sykes-Picot agreement —in violation of solemn wartime promises of postwar Arab autonomy—there came an immediate reaction: the Muslim Brotherhood emerged in Egypt, the House of Saud took over the Hijaz , and regimes led by army officers came to power in Iran and Turkey.

Fidelity or "faithfulness" and felicity [31] or transparency , dual ideals in translation, are often though not always at odds. Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom. John Dryden — wrote in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae :.

Common Challenges of Translation

Today, PDF is one of the most popular document formats, both privately and in the professional arena. Since its introduction by the US software provider Adobe Systems in , the PDF format has developed into an internationally recognized industry standard. Originally, the format had been developed in order to facilitate the exchange of electronic documents regardless of the platform, while retaining the original layout. This means that the content of a PDF file will always look the same as on the author's computer, regardless of the device or software used to display the file. PDF files are used in many different areas. For example, the PDF format is often used to publish various kinds of information on the Internet.

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source—language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source—language words, grammar , or syntax into the target—language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source—language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts , have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated. Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator.

It means, therefore, the correct translation does not only lay on the matter how the translator can transfer the meaning from source to target language, but also on.


Translation demands a deep understanding of both grammar and culture. Translators need to know the rules of a language as well as the habits of the people who speak it. And even for the most experienced professionals, confusion and frustration are familiar feelings.

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These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'target language. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year. Accessed 10 Mar. Nglish: Translation of target language for Spanish Speakers.

Translation Management. In this blog article, we use a few examples to illustrate how translation rates are formed and what factors affect the schedule. We also explain how you can influence the price and the schedule of a translation project. How long does it take to have an instruction manual translated into three languages? How much does it cost to have a product website translated into another language? Are there ways to influence the price other than through bargaining or competitive bidding? There are several factors that determine the price and the schedule of a translation assignment.

Translation is a mental activity in which a meaning of given linguistic discourse is rendered from one language to another. It is the act of transferring the linguistic entities from one language in to their equivalents in to another language. Translation is an act through which the content of a text is transferred from the source language in to the target language Foster, The language to be translated is called the source language SL , whereas the language to be translated into or arrived at is called the target language TL. The translator needs to have good knowledge of both the source and the target language, in addition to a high linguistic sensitivity as he should transmit the writer's intention, original thoughts and opinions in the translated version as precisely and faithfully as possible. Due to its prominence, translation has been viewed differently.

The Role of the Target Language

Just as there are different types of translation and different methods of translation, there are different techniques of translation. What is the difference between a translation method and a technique? The classical taxonomy of translation procedures dates back to and is the work of J. Vinay and J. It consists of seven categories:.

Стратмор знал, что охладителю потребуется несколько минут, чтобы достичь нижней части корпуса и не дать воспламениться расположенным там процессорам. Он был уверен, что все сделал вовремя, и усмехнулся. Он не сомневался в своей победе, не зная, что опоздал.

Source-Language Versus Target-Language Discourse Features in Translating the Word of God

 - Пожалуй, я куплю тебе билет.

Для того и предназначен этот переключатель, верно. Мидж покачала головой. - Только если файл не заражен вирусом. Бринкерхофф даже подпрыгнул.

 Почему бы не сказать - мы выиграли. Насколько мне известно, ты сотрудник АНБ. - Ненадолго, - буркнул Хейл. - Не зарекайся. - Я серьезно.

7 translation techniques to facilitate your work

Мечта, которой он жил все эти годы, умерла. Он никогда не получит Сьюзан Флетчер. Никогда.


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