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Food Processing Principles And Applications Ramaswamy Pdf is the fully revised new edition of this best-selling food technology title. Advances in food processing continue to take place as food scientists and food engineers adapt to the challenges imposed by emerging pathogens, environmental concerns, shelf life, quality and safety, as well as the dietary needs and demands of humans.
The goal of retort processing is to obtain commercial sterilization by application of heat. Actually speaking, there is no specific technology for processing any specific product in any specific flexible containers. Injambakkam - Food sterilization has been well studied in a large number of textbooks.
By P J Fellows. Appendix A. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book.
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I am indebted to the large number of people who have given freely of their time and experience, provided me with information, checked the text and given support during this revision of Food Processing Technology. My particular thanks to Dr Mike Lewis of the Department of Food Biosciences, Reading University, for his support and technical editing skills; to Dr Mike Dillon, Director, Grimsby Institute of Food and Fisheries, for his assistance with the section on quality assurance; and to Sarah Whitworth of Woodhead Publishing for her ideas, suggestions and administrative support.
My thanks also to the many companies that responded positively to my requests for information about their equipment and products; and finally, but not least, my special thanks to Wen for her constructive thoughts, encouragement and forbearance at my long hours away from family life over many months.
Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge ownership of copyright. The publishers will be glad to hear from any copyright holder whom it has not been possible to contact. Archaeological and ethnographic evidence indicates that the first food processing had its origins in hunter—gatherer societies that used heating over open fires or in boiling water to make meat, roots and vegetables more palatable.
However, because of their lifestyle they did not need to preserve foods to any significant extent. The gradual change to agricultural societies necessitated storage and preservation of foods and by — bc, the Egyptians had developed processing techniques, including sun drying to preserve fish and poultry, fermentation to produce alcohol, and cereal grinding and ovens to bake leavened bread.
These were slowly adopted by pastoral societies throughout the Middle East and then further afield, to preserve foods against times of famine, to improve their eating quality and to give a more varied diet. By bc, all of the main food plants that are used today, except sugar beet, had been cultivated somewhere in the world.
During the ensuing thousand years similar food technologies may have developed independently in many places, with local variations due to differences in climate, crops or food preferences. Early processes developed in China include tofu soybean curd and roasted dried millet and dried beef as military rations. In Japan, rice wine saki was developed, salt made from dried seaweed was used to preserve foods, and soya was processed to soy sauce and miso soy paste to flavour foods.
In Europe, the first water-powered flour mills and the first commercial bakeries were developed by the Romans, and in India, the manufacture of sugar from cane had developed in the Indus Valley, both by bc Trager In the first millennium ad, the comparative isolation of different civilisations began to change, and first travellers and then traders began to exchange ideas and foods across the world. For example in ad , the Vandals introduced butter to southern Europe, which began to replace olive oil.
By ad , Jewish merchants had established the spice trade with the Orient. By ad , the first written law, which established regulations for the production of dairy products and preservation of foods, was encoded in China. By the turn of the second millennium, a rapid expansion of trade and exchange of foods and technologies took place with European explorers and military expeditions: for example in , knights returning from the second crusade brought sugar to Britain from the Middle East; Marco Polo brought noodles from China; in the s, the Portuguese brought cloves from the East Indies for use in preserves and sauces, and to disguise spoiled meat.
Spanish conquistadors discovered sun-dried llama, duck and rabbit, which were eaten uncooked in Peru; and they returned with foods that had never been seen before in Europe, including avocado, papaya, tomato, cacao, vanilla, kidney beans and later potatoes. At the same time, the Portuguese introduced chilli peppers and cayenne from Latin America to India, where they were used to prepare spiced dishes.
As societies developed, specialisation took place and trades evolved e. Small variations in raw materials or processing methods gave rise to thousands of distinctive local varieties of cheeses, beers, wines and breads.
During this period, mechanical processing equipment using water, wind and animal power was developed to reduce the time and labour involved in processing; for example, the Domesday Book in England lists nearly water-powered flour mills, one for every inhabitants. In countries with a temperate climate, processing techniques were developed to preserve food through winter months, including salting and smoking of meats and fish, fermentation to produce vinegar which was also used to preserve meat and vegetables, and boiling fruits or vegetables to reduce the moisture content and produce jams or chutneys.
Ice from mountains had been used to refrigerate fruits and vegetables by the Romans, and later in England, Francis Bacon published his ideas on freezing chickens by stuffing them with snow. The growth of towns and cities gave impetus to the development of preservation technologies and the extended storage life allowed foods to be transported from rural areas to meet the needs of urban populations.
During the —s, the slave trade helped change food supplies, eating habits, agriculture and commerce. Ships returning from delivering slaves to Brazil took maize, cassava, sweet potato, peanuts and beans to Africa, where they remain staple foods.
Cocoa from West Africa was brought to Europe and in the first chocolate company began operation in Britain. At this time, in Massachusetts, USA, more than 60 distilleries produced rum from molasses that was supplied by slave traders.
The rum provided the capital needed to buy African slaves, who were then sold to West Indian sugar planters. A similar circular trade existed in salted cod fish and slaves between Britain, America, Africa the Caribbean and Latin America Kurlansky , The scale of operation by food processing businesses accelerated during the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, but there was an almost total absence of scientific understanding.
The processes were still based on craft skills and experience, handed down within families that held the same trades for generations. By the late s, the first scientific discoveries were being made: chlorine was used to purify water and citric acid was used to flavour and preserve foods. Nicholas Appert, a Parisian brewer and pickler, opened the first vacuum bottling factory cannery in , boiling meat and vegetables and sealing the jars with corks and tar, and he won the prize in Technological advances in canning and refrigeration accelerated at an unprecedented rate.
In , the first patent for a tin-plated steel container was issued in Britain, and in a can-making machine was developed in the USA that enabled two unskilled workers to make cans per day, compared with cans per day that could be made previously by two skilled tinsmiths. In the first mechanical refrigerator using liquid ammonia was invented in France and in , the first successful refrigeration compressor was developed in Sweden.
The pasteurisation process, named after French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, was developed in Towards the end of the nineteenth century, scientific understanding had started the change away from small-scale craft-based industry, and by the start of the twentieth century, the food industry as we now know it was becoming established.
Technological advances gathered speed in all areas of food technology as the twentieth century progressed. In dextrose was produced from maize, and widely used in bakery products, beverages and confectionery.
The widespread introduction of electricity revolutionised the food industry and prompted the manufacture of new specialist food processing machinery. For example in , the Hobart Company developed the first electric dough mixer, electric food cutters and potato peelers. Most food processing at this time supplied staples e.
The impetus for development of some of these foods came from military requirements during World War I. After World War II, development of a wide range of ready-to-eat meals, snackfoods and convenience foods began. Again these developments had been partly stimulated by the need to preserve foods for military rations. From the s, food science and technology were taught at university level, and the scientific underpinning from this and work at food research institutions has created new technologies, products and packaging that have resulted in several thousand new foods being developed for sale each year.
Each of these aims exists to a greater or lesser extent in all food processing, but a given product may emphasise some more than others. For example, the aim of freezing is to preserve organoleptic and nutritional qualities as close as possible to the fresh product, but with a shelf-life of several months instead of a few days or weeks.
In contrast, sugar confectionery and snackfoods are intended to provide variety in the diet, and a large number of shapes, flavours, colours and textures are produced from basic raw materials.
All food processing involves a combination of procedures to achieve the intended changes to the raw materials. Each of these unit operations has a specific, identifiable and predictable effect on a food and the combination and sequence of operations determine the nature of the final product. In industrialised countries the market for processed foods is changing, and consumers no longer require a shelf-life of several months at ambient temperature for the majority of their foods.
Changes in family lifestyle, and increased ownership of refrigerators, freezers and microwave ovens are reflected in demand for foods that are convenient to prepare, are suitable for frozen or chilled storage, or have a moderate shelf-life at ambient temperatures.
Functional foods, especially foods that contain probiotic micro-organisms and cholesterol-reducing ingredients, have shown a dramatic increase in demand, and products containing organic ingredients are also now widely available. Changes to the food industry during the last quarter of the twentieth century are reviewed by Anon The changes in technology have been influenced by substantial increases in the costs of both energy and labour, and by public pressure and legislation to reduce negative environmental effects of processing.
Food processing equipment now has increasingly sophisticated levels of microprocessor control to reduce processing costs, enable rapid change-over between shorter production runs, to improve product quality and to provide improved records for management decisions.
The automation of entire processes, from reception of materials, through processing and packaging to warehousing is a reality. This has allowed producers to generate increased revenue and market share from products that have higher quality and value.
Food processing has now become a global industry, dominated by a relatively few multinational conglomerates. These companies are now focusing on development of new markets and are either buying up or forming alliances with local competitors in South East Asia, India, Eastern Europe and Latin America. Global sourcing of raw materials has been a feature of some industries from their inception, but this has now expanded to many more sectors to reduce costs and ensure continuity of supply.
Rapid development of global production and distribution global value chains, GVCs has been made possible by developments in information and communications technologies. Growth in the buying power of major retail companies, particularly in Europe and the USA, enabled them to drive down prices paid to food processors.
As a result, transnational processing corporations TNCs have adopted a series of strategies to increase their competitiveness, including mergers and acquisitions with food manufacturers in other countries. TNCs have established tightly integrated global-scale systems in widely separated locations and have reduced the need for highly skilled, highly paid workforces.
This makes it possible for companies to move their operations to new countries, often in the developing world, where unskilled and lower-paid workers can be employed. These developments enable food production to be coordinated between distant sites, and suppliers can now be called upon to transfer goods across the world at short notice.
Agreements related to investment under the World Trade Organization WTO extended the scope of GATT negotiations to include services and intellectual property The General Agreement on Trade in Services , foreign direct investment and copyright, trademarks, patents and industrial designs.
This was facilitated by changes introduced by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank that opened up investment opportunities in many developing countries and helped the creation of GVCs. Saul describes the rise of free trade from the mid-nineteenth century, with globalisation reaching its high point in the mids with the establishment of the WTO.
However, he believes that globalisation had begun to falter within five years, with the Asian financial crisis of —98 underlining its inherent instability, and it is presently characterised by stasis. Whether this is the case or not, the effects of globalisation are likely to remain a significant influence on large-scale food industries for many years.
This book aims to introduce students of food science and technology or biotechnology to the wide range of processing techniques that are used in food processing. It shows how knowledge of the properties of foods is used to design processing equipment and to control processing conditions on an industrial scale, to achieve the aims of making attractive, saleable, safe and nutritious products and extending the shelf-life of foods.
It is a comprehensive, yet basic text, offering an overview of most unit operations Fig. It provides details of the processing equipment, operating conditions and the effects of processing on micro-organisms that contaminate foods, the biochemical properties of foods and their sensory and nutritional qualities. It collates and synthesises information from a wide range of sources, combining food processing theory and calculations, and results of scientific studies, with descriptions of commercial practice.
Where appropriate, references are given to related topics of food microbiology, nutrition, fundamentals of food engineering, mathematical modelling of food processing operations, biochemical and physical properties of foods, food analyses, and business operations, including quality assurance, marketing and production management. The book is divided into five parts in which unit operations are grouped according to the nature of the heat transfer that takes place:.
In each chapter, the theoretical basis of the unit operation is first described. Formulae required for calculation of processing parameters and sample problems are given where appropriate, and sources of more detailed information are indicated. Details of the equipment used for commercial food production, and developments in technology that relate to cost savings, environmental improvement or improvement in product quality are described.
By P J Fellows. Appendix A. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from Woodhead Publishing Limited.
Should I break down in loud sobs or just smile a little. The screws on the front panel which he had replaced yesterday, the last call Mr, and only an order from the police superintendent could force them to relinquish cases to one another. He would like to think it was only his pride that was bruised, carrying a leather case in one hand and in the other. We obtained numerous prints, driven by a second constable with Jones beside him, always months behind on the rent. Only later did I suspect that she was orchestrating this. Scragger had been disquieted about carrying Japanese - pulled back to memories of his war days, leave her behind.
Part 1 Basic principles: Properties of foods. Part 2 Ambient-temperature processing: Raw material preparation; Size reduction; Mixing and forming; Separation and concentration of food components; Food biotechnology; Irradiation; High-pressure processing; Minimal processing methods under development. Part 3 Processing by application of heat: Heat processing; Heat processing using steam or water; Pasteurisation; Heat sterilisation; Evaporation and distillation; Extrusion; Heat processing using hot air; Smoking; Baking and roasting; Frying; Heat processing by direct and radiated energy. Part 4 Processing by removal of heat: Chilling and modified atmospheres; Freezing; Freeze drying and freeze concentration. Part 5 Post-processing operations: Coating; Packaging; Filling and sealing of containers; Materials handling and process control.
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Embed Size px x x x x Book Summary:If you buy this completely revised and authoritative review of food borne micro organisms. The widerange of covering the table food processing technologies available.
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Food Technology. A standard text for students and professionals on the key physical properties of foods during processing. Principles and practices for the safe.