File Name: computer networking and data communication tutorial .zip
Modern world scenario is ever changing. Data Communication and network have changed the way business and other daily affair works. Now, they highly rely on computer networks and internetwork.
Resource Sharing means to make all programs, data and peripherals available to anyone on the network irrespective of the physical location of the resources and the user. Reliability means to keep the copy of a file on two or more different machines, so if one of them is unavailable due to some hardware crash or any other them its other copy can be used.
Communication Medium means one can send messages and whatever the changes at one end are done can be immediately noticed at another. The main objective of ARPANET was to develop a network that could continue to function efficiently even in the event of a nuclear attack. It is not owned by anybody. Circuit Switching : In the Circuit Switching technique, first, the complete end-to-end transmission path between the source and the destination computers is established and then the message is transmitted through the path.
The main advantage of this technique is guaranteed delivery of the message. Mostly used for voice communication. Message Switching : In the Message switching technique, no physical path is established between sender and receiver in advance.
This technique follows the store and forward mechanism. Packet Switching : In this switching technique fixed size of packet can be transmitted across the network.
Transmission media: 1. Twisted pair cable : — It consists of two identical 1 mm thick copper wires insulated and twisted together. The twisted pair cables are twisted in order to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. Co-axial Cables: It consists of a solid wire core surrounded by one or more foil or braided wire shields, each separated from the other by some kind of plastic insulator. It is mostly used in the cable wires. Optical fiber : — An optical fiber consists of thin glass fibers that can carry information in the form of visible light.
Infrared : — The infrared light transmits data through the air and can propagate throughout a room, but will not penetrate walls. It is a secure medium of signal transmission. The infrared transmission has become common in TV remotes, automotive garage doors, wireless speakers etc. Radio Wave : — Radio Wave an electromagnetic wave with a wavelength between 0. The transmission making use of radio frequencies is termed as radio-wave transmission.
Microwave Wave : — The Microwave transmission is a line of sight transmission. Microwave signals travel at a higher frequency than radio waves and are popularly used for transmitting data over long distances.
Satellite link : — The satellite transmission is also a kind of line of sight transmission that is used to transmit signals throughout the world. There are two types of modems, namely, internal modem and external modem.
RJ45 connector: — The RJ Registered Jack connectors are the plug-in devices used in the networking and telecommunications applications. They are used primarily for connecting LANs, particularly Ethernet. Ethernet Card : — It is a hardware device that helps in connection of nodes within a network. Hub: A hub is a hardware device used to connect several computers together.
Hubs can be either active or passive. Hubs usually can support 8, 12 or 24 RJ45 ports. Switch: A switch switching hub is a network device which is used to interconnect computers or devices on a network.
It filters and forwards data packets across a network. The main difference between hub and switch is that hub replicates what it receives on one port onto all the other ports while switch keeps a record of the MAC addresses of the devices attached to it. Repeater: A repeater is a network device that amplifies and restores signals for long distance transmission.
Topology refers to the way in which the workstations attached to the network are interconnected. Each computer performs its task of sending messages without the help of the central server. However, only one workstation can transmit a message at a particular time in the bus topology.
A STAR topology is common in homes networks where all the computers connect to the single central computer using it as a hub. It consists of groups of star — configured workstations connected to a bus backbone cable. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as writing lab, school or building.
It is generally privately owned networks over a distance not more than 5 Km. WAN Wide Area Network : These are the networks spread over large distances, say across countries or even continents through cabling or satellite uplinks are called WAN. It generally covers a range of less than 10 meters.
Personal Area Networks can be constructed with cables or wirelessly. TCP — is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server. Data can be lost in the intermediate network. TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data and to trigger retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received. IP — is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node. IP forwards each packet based on a four byte destination address the IP number.
The Internet authorities assign ranges of numbers to different organizations. The organizations assign groups of their numbers to departments. IP operates on gateway machines that move data from department to organization to region and then around the world.
It is an older internet utility that lets us log on to remote computer system. It also facilitates for terminal emulation purpose. Terminal emulation means using a pc like a mainframe computer through networking. Mobile computing means that the computing device is not continuously connected to the base or central network.
In covered areas, cell phone users can buy one phone that will work any where the standard is supported. It uses narrowband TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency.
CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead ,every channel uses the full available spectrum. WLL is a system that connects subscribers to the public switched telephone network using radio signals as a substitute for other connecting media. Video Conferencing : a two way videophone conversation among multiple participants is called video conferencing.
Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are capable of sharing and exchanging information. Advantages: i It is easy to install and maintain. Advantages: i Data transmission rate is better than twisted pair cables.
Disadvantages: i Expensive than twisted pair cables. Advantages : i Transmit data over long distance with high security. Disadvantages : i Expensive as compared to other guided media. Disadvantages: i Radio wave communication is insecure communication.
Advantages: i It is cheaper than laying cable or fiber. Disadvantages: i Microwave communication is an insecure communication. Advantages : i Area covered is quite large.
Disadvantages :- i Very expensive as compared to other transmission mediums. Gateway : A gateway is a device that connects dissimilar networks. Network topologies and types Topology : Topology refers to the way in which the workstations attached to the network are interconnected.
Advantages : i Easy to connect and install. Disadvantages :- i The entire network shuts down if there is a failure in the central cable. Advantages : i Easy to troubleshoot ii A single node failure does not affect the entire network.
Disadvantages:- i Difficult to expand. Advantages : i Eliminates network congestion. Disadvantages: i Uses large cable length. It defines the standardized format for data packets, techniques for detecting and correcting errors and so on. Types of protocols are: 1. HTTP 2. FTP 3. A client is the end-user; the server is the web site.
To encourage indirect or implicit use of remote computers. To transfer data reliably, and efficiently. Telnet It is an older internet utility that lets us log on to remote computer system. WLL Wireless in Local Loop : WLL is a system that connects subscribers to the public switched telephone network using radio signals as a substitute for other connecting media.
Email Electronic Mail : Email is sending and receiving messages by computer. Chat: Online textual talk in real time , is called Chatting. Next Communication and Networking — Short Notes
A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes. The interconnections between nodes are formed from a broad spectrum of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. The nodes of a computer network may include personal computers , servers , networking hardware , or other specialised or general-purpose hosts. They are identified by hostnames and network addresses. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, including the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth , communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network size, the topology, traffic control mechanism, and organizational intent.
Resource Sharing means to make all programs, data and peripherals available to anyone on the network irrespective of the physical location of the resources and the user. Reliability means to keep the copy of a file on two or more different machines, so if one of them is unavailable due to some hardware crash or any other them its other copy can be used. Communication Medium means one can send messages and whatever the changes at one end are done can be immediately noticed at another. The main objective of ARPANET was to develop a network that could continue to function efficiently even in the event of a nuclear attack. It is not owned by anybody. Circuit Switching : In the Circuit Switching technique, first, the complete end-to-end transmission path between the source and the destination computers is established and then the message is transmitted through the path.
Recognize the individual components of the big picture of computer networks Identify the different data codes and how they are used in communication.
Data Communication and Computer Networking provides the rules and regulations that allow computers with different operating systems, languages, cabling, and locations to share resources and communicate with each other. This Computer Network Tutorial is designed for beginners with no prior experience in Computer networking or Data communication. You will learn basic concepts of Networking and Data communication fundamentals.
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