File Name: difference between port and harbour .zip
P orts: definition and study of types, sizes and business models. Recei ved: March Accepted: July Roa, I. Ports: definition and study of types, sizes and business models.
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 6 4 , Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure. Then you can find out the legal status of the companies that manage them.
Findings: The results indicate a port type and a dominant size, which are mostly managed by companies subject to a concession model. Consequently, we tend to concession terminals to private operators in a process that might be called privatization, but in the strictest sense of the term, is not entirely realistic because the ownership of the land never ceases to be public.
Keywords: ports, concessions, load, management models, types of ports. As emphasized by the Economic Commission for Latin America of the United Nations — CEPAL report on the Integration of Latin America in international trade, emerging economies and developing are perceiving new requirement and trends in international markets, which are evolving. According to the Port Reform Tool Kit of the World Bank, the current scenario presents new patterns in which centers of production or service are dispersed throughout the world regardless of the country origin, culture and language.
As clearly expressed the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development , the changes in the business model of international trade significantly affect the development of certain countries due to the composition of exports and imports.
The new scheme of market integration results in a team that does not need to converge under one roof. The result is the specialization in manufacturing, increased price competitiveness and boosting trade.
From this stage, loom large synchronization of supply, distribution and marketing, spans almost the entire globe going beyond geographical boundaries. The integration process between users of different nations requires the promotion of transport, which becomes an essential tool that facilitates the flow of trade link between the states.
Therefore, has a direct impact on the supply chain and the global economy, as mentioned in the International Transport Forum Transport and logistics have a management base that allows specializing the international physical distribution operations, from the use of premises known as ports. The Ports are areas that are attached to a sea, ocean or river by connecting waterway and are essentially considered as entities. They are equipped with infrastructure and technical facilities of any kind that allow them to manage the load type for which they are specialized.
Its basic function is to provide shelter to a different extent to ships, allowing the transfer of goods from one means of transport to another. They also function as node link between sea and land and are a clear example of intermodality Tarantola, The ports are managed under a complex legal concept and managed through an organizational model that mostly generates the need for convergence of the public and private sectors. It is therefore an organizational model whose study is by no means trivial.
The management model used in Spanish territory is fairly standardized. In this model, infrastructure is publicly owned and service delivery tends to be private and regulation is carried out by a public official Bofarull, Obviously, although this is perhaps the most widespread model, is not alone as reflected in the World Bank report For the present article we propose a study to determine the most common organizational model of this type of facility, first defining the types of ports by physical characteristics and under development activity.
For the development of this study, we take a sample of ports, with different types, sizes and nationalities. Within this sample, we find the port facilities at World Port Source prominent as in the world in So there will be a thorough study that will identify the most common size and type of ports, in order to determine the organizational model, which should be the most optimal for this service sector, and meet market demands adapting its management to drastic changes in the economy.
This publication starts from the classification of the type of ports based on geographic location. However, given the scope of the investigation, it is necessary to generate categories whose difference is not strictly geographical but also focuses on aspects related to the type of facility deepwater seaport, seaport, river port, harbor, pier, Jetty or Wharf terminal port, offshore terminal and channel with respect to the type , as well as its size.
This size does not attend strictly to the area occupied by the port, but managed studied TEUs TEU is the acronym of the English Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit, and is the unit of measurement of capacity of shipping containers.
To define the size, we also study the number of non-containerized cargo handled during the year and the port areas of influence. Ports: Classification criteria. As noted previously, the types of classification study will be based on the different features that each facility and allow them to meet their business needs. Then define the eight types of ports proposed for this study:.
We are including in this classification to all ports whose foreland offshore area of influence are located within marine or ocean area. The overcoat is performed by means of a dam constructed for this purpose and these facilities provided are marine or oceanic. It is also those known as "dedicated terminals".
In the strict sense, is not about ports but rather simple terminals whose material uploaded or downloaded is always the same and consequently, their facilities are accessible only to the type of goods they manage. The most common dedicated terminals are those that move soybeans, coal and other minerals. The vast majority are solid bulk, although there are also specialized in liquid bulk terminals as oils, certain types of gas, etc.
Terminals are completely artificial firm whose area has been built specifically to house the equipment for the management of merchandise. Devoted exclusively to the deconsolidation of inbound cargo and shipment by short sea shipping to its hinterland and the consolidation of the projecting load coming through the same channel. This is the case of those located inside marine incoming and waterways can have kilometers.
In all cases, this facilities are communicating with the sea or ocean by a single point. This classification does not cover artificially constructed installations or whose activity is mere passage of ships like the Panama Canal or the Suez Canal.
There are currently 25 waterway systems 5 in Asia, 8 in Europe, 10 in North America and 2 in South America with a total of ports. In the present investigation these groups are despised and we consider each port separately. This classification of ports is not trivial and to fulfill apply multicriteria analysis that takes into account. TEU managed throughout the year.
Tones of cargo handled during the year. There are ports like Barcelona or Rotterdam that move both containers and bulk cargo. Consequently, these ports add the two types of goods in their total load managed.
Hinterland size and importance. Establishing a balance between the size of its inland catchment area hinterland and the importance of this area as business zone. It is perfectly possible for a port to have a relatively small, but very important hinterland as a center of business generation. Then, the port gets a higher score than another port with a much larger hinterland. Each of the ports is subjected to this weighting, individually. Foreland offshore zone of influence.
The size and area of influence are also considered when you sort. For classification of ports by size, is important to identify whether their management entity is public or private, because this character will greatly influence how investments arise. Another important aspect about the ownership is the scope within the influence area hinterland is often higher for public terminals, where most of its facilities are concessioned to private operators.
Currently, many of the ports are subject to privatization, a result of the new global trend that aims to achieve improvements in operational efficiency and requires a new investment management system v an Ham, Accordingly, the associated parameter value in analyzing its ownership may be multi fluctuating over time. Figu re 1. Ports studied in each country. The sample o f the port facilities mentioned above, are covering countries.
Figure 1 shows the ports associated with said sample. Highlights include countries like the U. This large turnout could be related to the level of development of the countries concerned rather with its geographical spread. While other countries like Greece, whose importance is determined by its privileged historically strategic location for business and not its geographical.
In Table 1 we highlight the 16 countries with the largest number of ports regardless of their type , including those found in the top countries like Britain, Italy and Japan, with relatively lower surfaces to other countries like China, Australia and Russia.
Ports studied. Ports in the country. Length of coastline. United States. United Kingdom. Tabl e 1. Geographical data of the countries with the highest number of ports.
Clearly, therefore, exist as in the case of Greece conditioning commercial, or merely geopolitical, as in the case of Japan. In view of Table 1, it is easy to see that there are countries where, due to the large number of ports, port management becomes a matter of state and collect a vital importance in the development of national economic policy. Table 2 lists the pooled data for the type in rows and columns for its size according to the selection criteria listed above.
In view of Table 2, we can see that the vast majority of ports studied are of the type "Seaport" marine and taking into account the size of them, belong to the "Medium". It makes sense, moreover, because there are much more global waterfront banks than navigable rivers. According to the criterion of space, we can only find 34 ports classified as very large among the studied. Of these 34 ports, 20 are in the top world's largest ports. It is surprising that, being classified as "very large", 14 of which do not appear in the list above.
This reaffirms the view that the size is not always the most important parameter, and yes it is the geostrategic position of the port in a framework of global trade.
Very large. Very small. Deepwater Seaport. River Port. Pier, Jetty or Wharf.
Ports are gateways for cargo and people and are made of up terminals that specialise in one or the other. As well as containers, port traffic includes oil, gas, bulk cargo and people, through ferry or cruise vessels. Each of these will have a specific terminal and different ports around the world could have more of one than the others, depending on their size and regional market. A container terminal is a part of a port where containerised cargo is transported from land to sea and from sea to land. When containers arrive from sea they will very often be transhipped onto another form of transportation, such as a lorry or, increasingly so, a train. On the other hand, when they arrive at the terminal on land, they will be delivered via one of those methods and transported onto a containership via the yard and ship-to-shore equipment.
Login Basket. If you are not in the mairitime industry, you may be unaware that there are various descriptions for places where maritime vessels can dock. A port is not the same thing as a harbour or terminal.
Port can be understood as a place, where loading and unloading of ships and boats are done. The term port is often juxtaposed with harbour , which implies a place along a coast where ships or boats can take shelter if the atmospheric conditions are not well for sailing. Many times they serve similar purposes relating to administration, development, industry and commerce. And due to this reason, there is always a buzz, whenever we talk of these two riverine.
There are various terminologies related to the marine industry that the mariners or people from the same industry understand. But common people are not that aware to know the meaning of such terms. Some terms are often confused with one another. The two confusing terms are port and harbor.
Ports are harbor areas in which marine terminal facilities are transferring cargo and passengers between ships and land transportation. Ports are points of convergence between the land and maritime domains of passengers and freight circulation. While the maritime domain can involve substantial geographic coverage related to global trade, the land domain is related to the region and locality of ports.
A port is a maritime facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg , Manchester and Duluth , are many miles inland, with access to the sea via river or canal. Because of their roles as a port of entry for immigrants many port cities such as London, New York, Shanghai, Los Angeles, Singapore and Vancouver have experienced dramatic multi-ethnic and multicultural changes. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports , such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. As of , the busiest passenger port in the world is the Port of Helsinki in Finland. Ports are responsible for a number of environmental impacts on local ecologies and water ways, for example direct effects on water quality, caused by dredging, spills and other pollution. Ports are heavily effected by the changing environmental factors caused by climate change.
- С какой стати такой параноик, как Танкадо, доверился столь ненадежному типу, как Хейл. Сьюзан понимала, что теперь это не имеет никакого значения. Нужно немедленно доложить обо всем Стратмору. Ирония ситуации заключалась в том, что партнер Танкадо находился здесь, прямо у них под носом. Ей в голову пришла и другая мысль - известно ли Хейлу, что Танкадо уже нет в живых.
Приготовиться. Приступайте. - Мы не успеем! - крикнула Соши. - На это уйдет полчаса. К тому времени все уже рухнет. Джабба открыл рот, готовый что-то сказать, но тут его буквально парализовал душераздирающий крик.
Внезапный прилив энергии позволил ей освободиться из объятий коммандера. Шум ТРАНСТЕКСТА стал оглушающим. Огонь приближался к вершине. ТРАНСТЕКСТ стонал, его корпус готов был вот-вот рухнуть.
Уничтожение ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Уже несколько лет Танкадо пытался рассказать миру о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, но ему никто не хотел верить. Поэтому он решил уничтожить это чудовище в одиночку.
В конце концов пришлось смирить гордыню и вызвать тебя. Сьюзан это позабавило. Стратмор был блестящими программистом-криптографом, но его диапазон был ограничен работой с алгоритмами и тонкости этой не столь уж изощренной и устаревшей технологии программирования часто от него ускользали. К тому же Сьюзан написала свой маячок на новом гибридном языке, именуемом LIMBO, поэтому не приходилось удивляться, что Стратмор с ним не справился.
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Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects pdf an introduction to analysis of financial data with r wiley pdf ruay tsayQuintilo M. 16.03.2021 at 23:11
A harbor American English or harbour British English ; see spelling differences synonym: haven is a sheltered body of water where ships , boats , and barges can be docked.Threelemrejean 18.03.2021 at 15:21
icel3.org › difference-between-port-and-harbour.Garland D. 23.03.2021 at 15:32
is a type of port or harbor facility particularly suitable for landing and past decade the distinction has been claimed by both the Port of Rotterdam and the Port.Anil S. 24.03.2021 at 07:27
P orts: definition and study of types, sizes and business models.