File Name: anthropological and sociological perspectives on culture and society .zip
The related disciplines of anthropology and sociology seek to understand the nature of communities, organizations, institutions, the systems of cultural meanings that form and inform them, and the interplay between individuals' lives and the societies in which they live. Such understanding requires critical analysis of the interactions among societies and the political, economic, and cultural dimensions of power embodied in structures of class, gender, ethnicity, and race operating on both a local and global level.
Identify the four subfields of anthropology and describe the kinds of research projects associated with each subfield. Describe how anthropology developed from early explorations of the world through the professionalization of the discipline in the 19th century. Discuss ethnocentrism and the role it played in early attempts to understand other cultures. Explain how the perspectives of holism, cultural relativism, comparison, and fieldwork, as well as both scientific and humanistic tendencies make anthropology a unique discipline. Evaluate the ways in which anthropology can be used to address current social, political, and economic issues.
Patricia M. Anthropologists study culture. As a medical anthropologist interested in the role of culture in health care, I have been intrigued by the growing number of articles that point to organizational culture as an important factor related to quality of care [ 1 ]. Apparently one review cited 15 different definitions [ 2 ]. Culture is seen as an independent variable that can be manipulated through management interventions in order to achieve organizational goals. Research studies from this approach tend to reflect a positivist stance, using structured instruments which pre-define the institutional attributes of interest and explore the correlation between these attributes and the quality-related outcomes of interest.
Social anthropologists seek to understand how people live in societies and how they make their lives meaningful. Anthropologists are concerned with such questions as:. View all our Social Anthropology courses for more information. Because of its focus on behaviour, organisation and meaning anthropology is used in a number of contemporary settings. Companies such as Google and Intel, for example, use anthropologists to understand how people interact with technology. Anthropological approaches are increasingly used in the health sector to redesign the patient experience.
The basic insight of sociology is that human behavior is shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that takes place within those groups. We are who we are and we behave the way we do because we happen to live in a particular society at a particular point in space and time. People tend to accept their social world unquestioningly, as something "natural. The sociological perspective invites us to look at our familiar surroundings in a fresh way. It encourages us to take a new look at the world we have always taken for granted, to examine our social environment with the same curiosity that we might bring to an exotic foreign culture. The study of sociology leads us into areas of society that we might otherwise have ignored or misunderstood. Since our world view is shaped by our personal experience and since people with different social experiences have different definitions of social reality, sociology helps us to appreciate viewpoints other than our own and to understand how these viewpoints came into being.
Culture relates to nature our biology and genetics and nurture our environment and surroundings that also shape our identities. Examine the ways culture and biology interact to form societies, norms, rituals and other representations of culture. Human beings are biological creatures. We are composed of blood and bones and flesh.
Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity , concerned with human behavior , human biology , and societies , in both the present and past, including past human species. Linguistic anthropology studies how language influences social life. Biological or physical anthropology    studies the biological development of humans. Visual anthropology , which is usually considered to be a part of social anthropology, can mean both ethnographic film where photography, film, and new media are used for study as well as the study of "visuals", including art, visual images, cinema etc. Oxford Bibliographies describes visual anthropology as "the anthropological study of the visual and the visual study of the anthropological".
The focus of medical professionalism has recently transitioned from expertise to social contract, emphasizing a need for health professionals to adjust their functional roles in line with societal expectations [ 1 ]. However, reform of the healthcare industry normally hinges on policymaking in national insurance and other schemes relevant to social well-being. Consequently, when doctor—patient relationships become straightforward, society at large seeks to determine whether health professionals are invariably altruistic or simply self-serving in their professional conduct [ 2 ].
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I contrast the sociology of culture with the cultural anthropological consideration of society. I next examine the terms for 'society' in the classical.Maddison L. 18.03.2021 at 15:54
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