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Passive And Active Attacks In Network Security Pdf

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Security attacks are typically computer attacks that jeopardize the security of the system. Want to gain more knowledge about these attacks?

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Types of Security attacks | Active and Passive attacks

In computers and computer networks an attack is any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain information through unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset. An attacker is a person or process that attempts to access data, functions or other restricted areas of the system without authorization, potentially with malicious intent.

A cyberattack can be employed by sovereign states , individuals, groups, society or organizations, and it may originate from an anonymous source. A product that facilitates a cyberattack is sometimes called a cyberweapon. A cyberattack may steal, alter, or destroy a specified target by hacking into a susceptible system. Legal experts are seeking to limit the use of the term to incidents causing physical damage, distinguishing it from the more routine data breaches and broader hacking activities.

Cyberattacks have become increasingly sophisticated and dangerous. User behavior analytics and SIEM can be used to help prevent these attacks. Since the late s cyberattacks have evolved several times to use innovations in information technology as vectors for committing cybercrimes. In recent years, the scale and robustness of cyberattacks has increased rapidly, as observed by the World Economic Forum in its report: "Offensive cyber capabilities are developing more rapidly than our ability to deal with hostile incidents.

The increasing dependency of modern society on information and computer networks both in private and public sectors, including the military [9] [10] [11] has led to new terms like cyber attack and cyberwarfare. As cars begin to adopt more technology, cyber attacks are becoming a security threat to automobiles.

Cyberwarfare utilizes techniques of defending and attacking information and computer networks that inhabit cyberspace, often through a prolonged cyber campaign or series of related campaigns.

It denies an opponent's ability to do the same, while employing technological instruments of war to attack an opponent's critical computer systems.

Cyberterrorism, on the other hand, is "the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures such as energy, transportation, government operations or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population".

The financial crime expert Veit Buetterlin explained that organizations, including state actors, which cannot finance themselves through trade because of imposed sanctions, conduct cyber attacks on banks to generate funds. Three factors contribute to why cyberattacks are launched against a state or an individual: the fear factor, spectacularity factor, and vulnerability factor.

The spectacularity factor is a measure of the actual damage achieved by an attack, meaning that the attack creates direct losses usually loss of availability or loss of income and garners negative publicity. On 8 February , a Denial of Service attack severely reduced traffic to many major sites, including Amazon, Buy. Vulnerability factor exploits how vulnerable an organization or government establishment is to cyberattacks.

Organizations without maintenance systems might be running on old servers which are more vulnerable than updated systems. An organization can be vulnerable to a denial of service attack and a government establishment can be defaced on a web page. A computer network attack disrupts the integrity or authenticity of data, usually through malicious code that alters program logic that controls data, leading to errors in output.

Professional hackers, either working on their own or employed by government agencies or the military, can find computer systems with vulnerabilities lacking the appropriate security software. Once those vulnerabilities are found, they can infect systems with malicious code and then remotely control the system or computer by sending commands to view content or to disrupt other computers.

There needs to be a pre-existing system flaw within the computer such as no antivirus protection or faulty system configuration for the viral code to work. Many professional hackers will promote themselves to cyberterrorists, for financial gain or other reasons.

Cyberterrorists have premeditated plans [20] and their attacks are not born of rage. They need to develop their plans step-by-step and acquire the appropriate software to carry out an attack. They usually have political agendas, targeting political structures.

Cyberterrorists are hackers with a political motivation, their attacks can impact political structure through this corruption and destruction. As previously stated cyberterrorists attack persons or property and cause enough harm to generate fear.

An attack can be active or passive. An attack can be perpetrated by an insider or from outside the organization; [7]. A resource both physical or logical , called an asset , can have one or more vulnerabilities that can be exploited by a threat agent in a threat action. As a result, the confidentiality , integrity or availability of resources may be compromised. Potentially, the damage may extend to resources in addition to the one initially identified as vulnerable, including further resources of the organization, and the resources of other involved parties customers, suppliers.

The so-called CIA triad is the basis of information security. The attack can be active when it attempts to alter system resources or affect their operation: so it compromises integrity or availability. A " passive attack " attempts to learn or make use of information from the system but does not affect system resources: so it compromises confidentiality. A threat is a potential for violation of security, which exists when there is a circumstance, capability, action or event that could breach security and cause harm.

That is, a threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability. A threat can be either "intentional" i. A set of policies concerned with information security management, the information security management systems ISMS , has been developed to manage, according to risk management principles, the countermeasures in order to accomplish to a security strategy set up following rules and regulations applicable in a country.

An attack should led to a security incident i. In other words, a security-relevant system event in which the system's security policy is disobeyed or otherwise breached.

The overall picture represents the risk factors of the risk scenario. An organization should make steps to detect, classify and manage security incidents. The first logical step is to set up an incident response plan and eventually a computer emergency response team.

In order to detect attacks, a number of countermeasures can be set up at organizational, procedural and technical levels. Computer emergency response team , information technology security audit and intrusion detection system are examples of these.

An attack usually is perpetrated by someone with bad intentions: black hatted attacks falls in this category, while other perform penetration testing on an organization information system to find out if all foreseen controls are in place. The attacks can be classified according to their origin: i.

Botnets are used to conduct distributed attacks. Other classifications are according to the procedures used or the type of vulnerabilities exploited: attacks can be concentrated on network mechanisms or host features.

Some attacks are physical: i. Others are attempts to force changes in the logic used by computers or network protocols in order to achieve unforeseen by the original designer result but useful for the attacker. Software used to for logical attacks on computers is called malware.

In detail, there are a number of techniques to utilize in cyberattacks and a variety of ways to administer them to individuals or establishments on a broader scale. Attacks are broken down into two categories: syntactic attacks and semantic attacks. Syntactic attacks are straightforward; it is considered malicious software which includes viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

A virus is a self-replicating program that can attach itself to another program or file in order to reproduce. The virus can hide in unlikely locations in the memory of a computer system and attach itself to whatever file it sees fit to execute its code.

It can also change its digital footprint each time it replicates making it harder to track down in the computer. A worm does not need another file or program to copy itself; it is a self-sustaining running program. Worms replicate over a network using protocols.

The latest incarnation of worms make use of known vulnerabilities in systems to penetrate, execute their code, and replicate to other systems such as the Code Red II worm that infected more than systems in less than 14 hours. A Trojan horse is designed to perform legitimate tasks but it also performs unknown and unwanted activity.

It can be the basis of many viruses and worms installing onto the computer as keyboard loggers and backdoor software. In a commercial sense, Trojans can be imbedded in trial versions of software and can gather additional intelligence about the target without the person even knowing it happening. All three of these are likely to attack an individual and establishment through emails, web browsers, chat clients, remote software, and updates.

Semantic attack is the modification and dissemination of correct and incorrect information. Information modified could have been done without the use of computers even though new opportunities can be found by using them. To set someone into the wrong direction or to cover your tracks, the dissemination of incorrect information can be utilized.

There were two such instances between India and Pakistan that involved cyberspace conflicts, started in s. Earlier cyber attacks came to known as early as in Historical accounts indicated that each country's hackers have been repeatedly involved in attacking each other's computing database system.

The number of attacks has grown yearly: 45 in , in , by the end of August According to the media, Pakistan's has been working on effective cyber security system, in a program called the "Cyber Secure Pakistan" CSP.

In , according to the Media reports, Pakistan Army confirms the series of Cyber Attacks that has been identified on Pakistani Government and private websites by the Indian Intelligence. ISPR also advised the government and private institutions to enhance cyber security measures. Within cyberwarfare, the individual must recognize the state actors involved in committing these cyberattacks against one another.

The two predominant players that will be discussed is the age-old comparison of East versus West , China's cyber capabilities compared to United States' capabilities. There are many other state and non-state actors involved in cyberwarfare, such as Russia, Iran, Iraq, and Al Qaeda; since China and the U.

But in Q2 , Akamai Technologies reported that Indonesia toppled China with portion 38 percent of cyber attack, a high increase from 21 percent portion in previous quarter. China set 33 percent and US set at 6. Indonesia dominated the attacking to ports 80 and by about 90 percent. Hackers from Azerbaijan and Armenia have actively participated in cyberwarfare as part of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh , with Azerbaijani hackers targeting Armenian websites and posting Ilham Aliyev 's statements.

This strategy helps link together network warfare tools and electronic warfare weapons against an opponent's information systems during conflict.

They believe the fundamentals for achieving success is about seizing control of an opponent's information flow and establishing information dominance. The predominant techniques that would be utilized during a conflict to gain the upper hand are as follows, the PLA would strike with electronic jammers, electronic deception and suppression techniques to interrupt the transfer processes of information. They would launch virus attacks or hacking techniques to sabotage information processes, all in the hopes of destroying enemy information platforms and facilities.

The PLA's Science of Campaigns noted that one role for cyberwarfare is to create windows of opportunity for other forces to operate without detection or with a lowered risk of counterattack by exploiting the enemy's periods of "blindness", "deafness" or "paralysis" created by cyberattacks. The PLA conduct regular training exercises in a variety of environments emphasizing the use of cyberwarfare tactics and techniques in countering such tactics if it is employed against them.

Faculty research has been focusing on designs for rootkit usage and detection for their Kylin Operating System which helps to further train these individuals' cyberwarfare techniques.

China perceives cyberwarfare as a deterrent to nuclear weapons, possessing the ability for greater precision, leaving fewer casualties, and allowing for long ranged attacks. The cyberattacks on Estonia were a series of cyberattacks which began on 27 April and targeted websites of Estonian organizations, including Estonian parliament , banks, ministries, newspapers and broadcasters, amid the country's disagreement with Russia about the relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn , an elaborate Soviet-era grave marker, as well as war graves in Tallinn.

In an extension of a bilateral dispute between Ethiopia and Egypt over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam , Ethiopian government websites have been hacked by the Egypt-based hackers in June The Iranian authorities activated the "Digital Fortress" cyber-defense mechanism to repel.

Difference Between Active and Passive Attacks

The major difference between active and passive attacks is that in active attacks the attacker intercepts the connection and modifies the information. Whereas, in a passive attack, the attacker intercepts the transit information with the intention of reading and analyzing the information not for altering it. There are various types of threats, attacks and vulnerabilities present to corrupt and breach the system security. Security attacks are the computer attacks that compromise the security of the system. Basis for comparison Active Attack Passive Attack Basic Active attack tries to change the system resources or affect their operation. Passive attack tries to read or make use of information from the system but does not influence system resources. Modification in the information Occurs does not take place Harm to the system Always causes damage to the system.

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In computers and computer networks an attack is any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain information through unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset. An attacker is a person or process that attempts to access data, functions or other restricted areas of the system without authorization, potentially with malicious intent. A cyberattack can be employed by sovereign states , individuals, groups, society or organizations, and it may originate from an anonymous source.

Американская разведка тоже идет по следу. Они, вполне естественно, хотят предотвратить распространение Цифровой крепости, поэтому послали на поиски ключа человека по имени Дэвид Беккер. - Откуда вам это известно.

 - Вам нужна сопровождающая. - Да-да. Сегодня мой брат Клаус нанял девушку, очень красивую. С рыжими волосами.

types of network security pdf


Никого. Дэвид Беккер исчез. Тремя пролетами ниже Дэвид Беккер висел на вытянутых руках над Апельсиновым садом с наружной стороны Гиральды, словно упражняясь в подтягивании на оконном выступе. Когда Халохот поднимался по лестнице, Беккер, спустившись на три пролета, вылез через один из проемов и повис на руках.

Кто-то должен иметь возможность оценивать и отделять одно от другого. В этом и заключается наша работа. Это наш долг.

 - Извините за беспокойство. Повернувшись, он направился через фойе к выходу, где находилось вишневое бюро, которое привлекло его внимание, когда он входил. На нем располагался щедрый набор фирменных открыток отеля, почтовая бумага, конверты и ручки. Беккер вложил в конверт чистый листок бумаги, надписал его всего одним словом: Росио - и вернулся к консьержу. - Извините, что я снова вас беспокою, - сказал он застенчиво.  - Я вел себя довольно глупо.

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 Значит, я не могу сойти. Парень захохотал. - Доедешь до конечной остановки, приятель. Через пять минут автобус, подпрыгивая, несся по темной сельской дороге. Беккер повернулся к панку. - Этот тарантас когда-нибудь остановится. - Еще пять миль.

Итак, где ключ. Хейл попытался пошевелить руками, но понял, что накрепко связан. На лице его появилось выражение животного страха. - Отпусти. - Мне нужен ключ, - повторила Сьюзан. - У меня его. Отпусти меня! - Он попробовал приподняться, но не смог даже повернуться.

Он нервно оглядел коридор. Его уже выставили сегодня из больницы, и он не хотел, чтобы это случилось еще. - Nimm deinen FuB weg! - прорычал немец.  - Уберите ногу. Взгляд Беккера упал на пухлые пальцы мужчины. Никакого кольца.

Difference between Active Attack and Passive Attack

Простое число.

ГЛАВА 38 Хейл остановился в центре комнаты и пристально посмотрел на Сьюзан. - Что случилось, Сью. У тебя ужасный вид. Сьюзан подавила поднимающуюся волну страха.

Ей-ей. Обхватил ее своими ручищами. Да еще хвастался, что снял ее на весь уик-энд за три сотни долларов.

Network security

 - Слова лились потоком, словно ждали много лет, чтобы сорваться с его губ.  - Я люблю. Я люблю .

Беккер держался центра башни, срезая углы и одним прыжком преодолевая сразу несколько ступенек, Халохот неуклонно двигался за. Еще несколько секунд - и все решит один-единственный выстрел. Даже если Беккер успеет спуститься вниз, ему все равно некуда бежать: Халохот выстрелит ему в спину, когда он будет пересекать Апельсиновый сад.

Types of Security attacks | Active and Passive attacks

Но ему хватило одного взгляда, чтобы понять: никакая это не диагностика. Хейл мог понять смысл лишь двух слов. Но этого было достаточно.

Он подумал, что это мы его убили. Он почувствовал, что умирает, и вполне логично предположил, что это наших рук. Тут все совпадает. Он решил, что мы добрались до него и, вероятно, отравили - ядом, вызывающим остановку сердца. Он понимал, что мы могли решиться на это только в одном случае - если нашли Северную Дакоту.

Он был гораздо сильнее, и ему легче было бы подталкивать ее вверх, тем более что площадка подсвечивалась мерцанием мониторов в кабинете Стратмора. Но если она окажется впереди, он подставит Стратмору спину. Волоча Сьюзан за собой, он использовал ее как живой щит.

Секунду спустя машина остановилась рядом с .

Она никогда раньше не слышала выстрелов, разве что по телевизору, но не сомневалась в том, что это был за звук. Сьюзан словно пронзило током. В панике она сразу же представила себе самое худшее.

 - Я добиваюсь своих целей, но честь для меня важнее. Я скорее предпочту умереть, чем жить в тени позора. А ждет его именно .

Она знала, что, если они не будут терять времени, им удастся спасти эту великую дешифровальную машину параллельной обработки. Каждый компьютер в мире, от обычных ПК, продающихся в магазинах торговой сети Радиошэк, и до систем спутникового управления и контроля НАСА, имеет встроенное страховочное приспособление как раз на случай таких ситуаций, называемое отключение из розетки.


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