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Indian Culture And Religion Pdf

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Religion in India Census [1]. Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. The preamble of the Indian constitution states that India is a secular state.

The Namaste is one of the most popular Indian customs and isn't just restricted to the Indian territory anymore. But, what's the significance? It translates to 'I bow to you', and greeting one another with it is a way of saying 'May our minds meet', indicated by the folded palms placed before the chest.

Religion and Culture

Indian culture is the heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs, belief systems , political systems , artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the Indian subcontinent.

The term also applies beyond India to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to India by immigration, colonization, or influence, particularly in South Asia and Southeast Asia. India's languages , religions , dance , music , architecture , food and customs differ from place to place within the country.

Indian culture, often labelled as a combination of several cultures, has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old, beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization. Indian-origin religions Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism , and Sikhism , [3] are all based on the concepts of dharma and karma. India has 28 states and 8 union territories with different culture and it is the second most populated country in the world.

This particularly concerns the spread of Hinduism , Buddhism , architecture , administration and writing system from India to other parts of Asia through the Silk Road by the travelers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era. India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and other religions. They are collectively known as Indian religions. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether, [23] [24] [25] and possibly as many as 2.

India is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures.

Religion plays a central and definitive role in the life of many of its people. Although India is a secular Hindu-majority country, it has a large Muslim population. Except for Jammu and Kashmir , Punjab , Meghalaya , Nagaland , Mizoram and Lakshadweep , Hindus form the predominant population in all 28 states and 8 union territories. Sikhs and Christians are other significant minorities of India.

According to the census, Islam Indian philosophy comprises the philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between BCE to the early centuries of the Common Era. According to philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , the earliest of these, which date back to the composition of the Upanishads in the later Vedic period — BCE , constitute "the earliest philosophical compositions of the world.

Subsequent centuries produced commentaries and reformulations continuing up to as late as the 20th century. For generations, India has a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. It is when extended members of a family — parents, children, the children's spouses and their offspring, etc. Usually, the oldest male member is the head of the joint Indian family system. He mostly makes all important decisions and rules, and other family members are likely to abide by them.

In a study, Orenstein and Micklin analysed India's population data and family structure. Their studies suggest that Indian household sizes had remained similar over the to period.

Thereafter, with urbanisation and economic development, India has witnessed a break up of traditional joint family into more nuclear-like families. The traditionally large joint family in India, in the s, accounted for a small percent of Indian households, and on average had lower per capita household income.

He finds that joint family still persists in some areas and in certain conditions, in part due to cultural traditions and in part due to practical factors.

Arranged marriages have long been the norm in Indian society. Even today, the majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members. In the past, the age of marriage was young. In most of the marriages, the bride's family provides a dowry to the bridegroom.

Traditionally, the dowry was considered a woman's share of the family wealth, since a daughter had no legal claim on her natal family's real estate. It also typically included portable valuables such as jewelry and household goods that a bride could control throughout her life. Since , Indian laws treat males and females as equal in matters of inheritance without a legal will.

There is a dearth of scientific surveys or studies on Indian marriages where the perspectives of both husbands and wives were solicited in-depth. Sample surveys suggest the issues with marriages in India are similar to trends observed elsewhere in the world.

The divorce rates are rising in India. Urban divorce rates are much higher. Women initiate about 80 percent of divorces in India. Opinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists, the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while, for some modernists, they speak of healthy new empowerment for women.

Recent studies suggest that Indian culture is trending away from traditional arranged marriages. Banerjee et al. They find that the marriage trends in India are similar to trends observed over the last 40 years in China, Japan and other nations. The percentage of self-arranged marriages called love marriages in India were also increasing, particularly in the urban parts of India. Weddings are festive occasions in India with extensive decorations, colors, music, dance, costumes and rituals that depend on the religion of the bride and the groom, as well as their preferences.

While there are many festival-related rituals in Hinduism, vivaha wedding is the most extensive personal ritual an adult Hindu undertakes in his or her life. The rituals and process of a Hindu wedding vary depending on the region of India, local adaptations, resources of the family and preferences of the bride and the groom. Nevertheless, there are a few key rituals common in Hindu weddings — Kanyadaan , Panigrahana , and Saptapadi ; these are respectively, gifting away of daughter by the father, voluntarily holding hand near the fire to signify impending union, and taking seven steps before fire with each step including a set of mutual vows.

Mangalsutra necklace of bond that a Hindu groom ties with three knots around the bride's neck in a marriage ceremony. The practice is an integral part of a marriage ceremony as prescribed in Manusmriti, the traditional law governing Hindu marriage.

After the seventh step and vows of Saptapadi , the couple is legally husband and wife. The couple walks around the holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib four times. Indian Muslims celebrate a traditional Islamic wedding following customs similar to those practiced in the Middle East. The rituals include Nikah , payment of financial dower called Mahr by the groom to the bride, signing of a marriage contract, and a reception.

Homes, buildings and temples are decorated with festive lights, diya , for Diwali , a major festival of India. The Navaratri festival is an occasion of classical and folk dance performances at Hindu temples. Pictured is the Ambaji Temple of Gujarat. Immersion of Ganesha idol during the Ganesh Chaturthi festival in Maharashtra.

Kathakali performances are a part of Onam festival tradition. Durga Puja is a multi-day festival in Eastern India that features elaborate temple and stage decorations pandals , scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions. The Hornbill Festival , Kohima , Nagaland. The festival involves colourful performances, crafts, sports, food fairs, games and ceremonies.

India, being a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays in India , the Independence Day , the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti , are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India.

In addition, many Indian states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. India celebrates a variety of festivals due to the large diversity of India. The government also provides facilities for the celebration of all religious festivals with equality and grants road bookings, security, etc.

The Indian New Year festival is celebrated in different parts of India with a unique style at different times. Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions. Sikh festivals, such as Guru Nanak Jayanti , Baisakhi are celebrated with full fanfare by Sikhs and Hindus of Punjab and Delhi where the two communities together form an overwhelming majority of the population.

Adding colours to the culture of India, the Dree Festival is one of the tribal festivals of India celebrated by the Apatanis of the Ziro valley of Arunachal Pradesh , which is the easternmost state of India. Nowruz is the most important festival among the Parsi community of India. Islam in India is the second largest religion with over million Muslims, according to India's census.

Christianity in India is the third-largest religion with over The country celebrates Christmas and Good Friday as public holidays. Regional and community fairs are also common festival in India.

For example, Pushkar Fair of Rajasthan is one of the world's largest markets of cattle and livestock. All these are commonly spoken greetings or salutations when people meet and are forms of farewell when they depart. Namaskar is considered slightly more formal than Namaste but both express deep respect.

Namaskar is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus , Jains and Buddhists, and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. In Indian and Nepali culture, the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. However, the same hands folded gesture may be made wordlessly or said without the folded hand gesture. The word is derived from Sanskrit namah : to bow , reverential salutation , and respect , and te : "to you". Taken literally, it means "I bow to you".

These traditional forms of greeting may be absent in the world of business and in India's urban environment, where a handshake is a common form of greeting. The varied and rich wildlife of India has a profound impact on the region's popular culture.

Common name for wilderness in India is Jungle which was adopted by Britons living in India to the English language. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales. In Hinduism, the cow is regarded as a symbol of ahimsa non-violence , mother goddess and bringer of good fortune and wealth. This is why beef remains a taboo food in mainstream Hindu and Jain society. The Article 48 of the present Indian Constitution says that the state shall endeavor to prohibit slaughtering and smuggling of cows.

Several states of India have passed laws to protect cows, while many states have no restrictions on the production and consumption of beef. Some groups oppose the butchering of cows, while other secular groups argue that what kind of meat one eats ought to be a matter of personal choice in a democracy.

Gujarat, a western state of India, has the Animal Preservation Act, enacted in October , that prohibits the killing of cows along with buying, selling and transport of beef. In contrast, Odisha, Assam and Andhra Pradesh allow butchering of cattle with a fit-for-slaughter certificate. In the states of West Bengal and Kerala, consumption of beef is not deemed an offence.

Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy

India is known for the moral ethos of its people. Indian beliefs have been associated with compassion and respect for nature and its creations since ages. The religious beliefs of Jain, Vedic and Buddhist traditions in India established the principles of ecological harmony centuries ago. Indian religious and philosophical traditions embody the earliest concept of environmental ethics. Some of the important traditional environmental beliefs prevalent in India in which nature has been valued are discussed here.

Hinduism , major world religion originating on the Indian subcontinent and comprising several and varied systems of philosophy , belief, and ritual. Although the name Hinduism is relatively new, having been coined by British writers in the first decades of the 19th century, it refers to a rich cumulative tradition of texts and practices, some of which date to the 2nd millennium bce or possibly earlier. If the Indus valley civilization 3rd—2nd millennium bce was the earliest source of these traditions, as some scholars hold, then Hinduism is the oldest living religion on Earth. Its many sacred texts in Sanskrit and vernacular languages served as a vehicle for spreading the religion to other parts of the world, though ritual and the visual and performing arts also played a significant role in its transmission. From about the 4th century ce , Hinduism had a dominant presence in Southeast Asia , one that would last for more than 1, years. Despite its global presence, however, it is best understood through its many distinctive regional manifestations. The term Hinduism became familiar as a designator of religious ideas and practices distinctive to India with the publication of books such as Hinduism by Sir Monier Monier-Williams, the notable Oxford scholar and author of an influential Sanskrit dictionary.


India did not believe in invasion or war to propagate its culture, religion,. ideology​, or any other thing. It treated all living creatures with the same equality and.


Culture of India

Download your free copy here. Religion and culture seem like complex ideas to study from the perspective of International Relations. After all, scholars and philosophers have long debated the meaning of these terms and the impact they have had on our comprehension of the social world around us. So is it an impossibly complicated task to study religion and culture at the global level? In this chapter, which completes the first section of the book, we will explore why thinking about religious and cultural factors in global affairs is as integral as the other issues we have covered thus far.

You will gain an understanding of a number of key areas including:. If you want to learn about Indian culture at a greater depth, then sign up for our e-Learning Course on India. Remember this is only a very basic level introduction to Indian culture and the people; it can not account for the diversity within Indian society and is not meant in any way to stereotype all Indian people you may meet!

16 Unique Culture of India : Customs & Indian Traditions

5 Comments

Tabor C. 15.03.2021 at 02:38

Religion has historically influenced Indian society on a political, cultural and economic level.

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Culture, Tradition and Religion: a critical analysis of two generations, the young and the old in Caminho das Índias. Sudha Swarnakar1. A display of Indian.

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Religion and Philosophy in India: Ancient Period: Pre-Vedic and Vedic. Religion, Buddhism and Jainism, Indian philosophy – Vedanta and. Mimansa school of.

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Indian culture is the heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs, belief systems , political systems , artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the Indian subcontinent.

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