File Name: health and safety at work in professional practices .zip
This quick reference guide summarises the key components of HSWA including the roles and responsibilities of PCBUs, officers, workers and others in managing workplace health and safety risks. It gives examples to explain certain concepts and directs readers to where they can find guidance on how to meet regulatory requirements. As this guide will be updated regularly, please check the WorkSafe website for the latest version.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Without a massive survey of U. However, it was possible to assemble a description of the four traditional or core OSH professions occupational safety, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, and occupational health nursing as well as three other disciplines likely to play a substantial role in the workplace of the future: employee assistance professionals, ergonomists, and occupational health psychologists.
Although each of the four traditional OSH professions emphasizes different aspects of OSH, members of all four professions share the common goal of identifying hazardous conditions, materials, and practices in the workplace and assisting employers and workers in eliminating or reducing the attendant risks.
Occupational safety professionals, although concerned about all workplace hazards, have traditionally emphasized the prevention of traumatic injuries and workplace fatalities.
Similarly, industrial hygienists, although they do not ignore injuries, have been a source of special expertise on the identification and control of hazards associated with acute or chronic exposure to chemical, biological, and physical agents.
Occupational health nurses and occupational medicine physicians are distinguished by providing clinical care and programs aimed at health promotion and protection and disease prevention. These services include not only diagnosis and treatment of work related illness and injury, but also pre-placement, periodic, and return-to-work examinations, impairment evaluations, independent medical examinations, drug testing, disability and case management, counseling.
Approximately 76, Americans are active members of professional societies that represent the core OSH disciplines. The literature suggests that as many as 50, more are eligible for membership by virtue of their current employment. The committee therefore estimates the current supply of OSH professionals at 75, to , The committee could not locate good, independent data to support an estimate of demand i.
However, the committee notes that considerable need exists beyond the current demand for OSH professionals by employers. Doctoral-level safety educators are needed to maintain the supply of practicing safety professionals, and both occupational medicine and occupational health nursing need more specialists with formal training.
Most importantly, a large fraction of the U. Those who provide OSH services to the U. Every business has some safety or health hazards and should logically have someone responsible for the safety and health of its workers. Those vested with some degree of OSH responsibility range from medical specialists with residency training, who bring 22 years of education to bear on the task, to the workers themselves, who may have only a high school diploma and a few words of caution upon starting the job.
Many individuals with significant responsibility have no formal training at all. Some come from fields like engineering, psychology, business, or one of the sciences and have highly relevant technical or professional education. Many others developed the relevant skills on the job, as full-time OSH specialists or as human resource managers or line supervisors with an additional duty as health and safety officer.
Allied professionals include highly trained individuals who provide important health or safety services to the general population, which of course includes numerous workers occupational therapists, audiologists, and orthopedic surgeons for example or who provide such services in highly circumscribed settings for example, infection control practitioners in hospitals or health physicists in industries where radiation is a hazard.
Short of an exhaustive survey of U. This pyramid represents the sizes of various sectors of the population with de facto responsibility for OSH. It is not strictly proportional to the numbers involved, but the shape is intended to convey that the recognized professionals in the field constitute only a small portion of those involved. The triangular shape is also intended to convey the extent of contact with the general workforce. OSH professionals are concentrated in large firms, which employ a minority of U.
The traditional or core OSH professions are generally recognized as occupational safety, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine OM , and occupational health nursing. In fact, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH education and training programs have focused almost exclusively on these professions since their inception in the late s. The existence and interest of very active professional societies associated with these disciplines enabled the committee to assemble comprehensive views of each of these OSH fields, which are summarized in this chapter.
The chapter also includes a short section that describes three other groups of professionals likely to play a substantial role in the workplace of the future: employee assistance professionals, ergonomists, and occupational health psychologists.
Although each of the four traditional OSH professions emphasizes different aspects of OSH and educates and trains its members accordingly, in practice, members of all four professions share the common goal of identifying hazardous conditions, materials, and practices in the workplace and assisting employers and workers in eliminating or reducing the attendant risks.
Hazard identification requires knowledge of relevant laws and regulations; the physiological capabilities of workers; the materials, equipment, and processes in use at the work site; and historical data on the work site, the industry or business as a whole, and the individual workers at the work site.
It may require interviews, surveys, environmental sampling, and laboratory analysis or the assistance of other professionals. Hazard control may involve engineering or design changes, procedural or administrative changes, provision of personal protective equipment, or changes in worker behavior.
It almost always involves education and training of both management and workers about the hazard and its control. Occupational safety professionals, although they are concerned about all workplace hazards, have traditionally emphasized the prevention of traumatic injuries and workplace fatalities. Similarly, industrial hygienists, although they do not ignore injuries, have been a source of special expertise on the acute and chronic effects of chemical, biological, and physical health hazards.
Occupational health nurses and OM physicians, although they are concerned with hazard identification and control, are distinguished by providing clinical and preventive health care. These cover prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and referral, including preplacement, periodic, and return-to-work physicals, drug testing, disability management, counseling for behavioral and emotional problems that affect job performance, and health promotion and disease prevention programs.
In the biggest and best OSH programs, the special expertise of each is used in seamless coordination. The settings in which OSH professionals practice are varied, but most can be classified into five major categories:.
The traditional setting for much of OSH practice is in medium-sized or large industries where the OSH professional serves in a line function and addresses occupational health issues for a well-defined set of workers. The role is rather similar whether the industry is petroleum refining, a large bank, or an aircraft carrier. In all cases, the OSH professional focuses on the particular hazards of the industry and methods of their evaluation, control, and management.
In some cases the OSH professional is assigned to a particular facility, and in others he or she operates from a corporate center. An increasing number of OSH professionals work for consulting firms that provide OSH services to various segments of industry and government on a contractual basis. In some cases these relationships are stable and allow the development of industry-specific expertise, and in other cases the OSH practice is very broadly based and varied.
Consulting practice presents considerable challenges in influencing internal corporate culture and mounting stable prevention activities from outside the company.
Nevertheless, many companies are outsourcing OSH functions, particularly OM and industrial hygiene functions. The current mode of practice for OM physicians, for example, has changed from one that is dominated by physicians who are hired by large corporations to one in which the majority of OM physicians practice in the private sector as clinicians. As the size of the U. Instead, increasing numbers of OM physicians have established practices in hospital- and clinic-based health maintenance organizations and group practices or in private solo practice.
An additional base from which OSH consulting activities are mounted are specialized government units, often linked to regulatory agencies, that assist small employers in addressing occupational and environmental health hazards. Department of Labor. Department of Labor and the Nuclear Regulatory Agency. The U. Department of Defense and the U. Department of Energy, which are self-regulating, also employ substantial numbers of OSH professionals, both in-house and as consultants and contractors.
The goal of workplace inspections in all of these settings is to verify that the employer has accurately assessed and effectively controlled the hazards faced by its employees and to ensure that the workplace is in compliance with the appropriate regulations. Research in or directly relevant to the OSH field is carried out in government laboratories, notably, those of NIOSH, universities, and the private sector and in institutions affiliated with organized labor.
For example, aerosol science research, which is of great relevance to industrial hygiene practice, is often found in engineering departments in universities, as are many aspects of the control technology that underlie the control of workplace hazards. In contrast to the professional practice of occupational safety, industrial hygiene, OM, and occupational health nursing, many researchers who make important contributions to the field have had no OSH training.
Scientists investigating the pathophysiology of cancer, or of asthma, for example, may know little about OSH but nevertheless provide information highly relevant for occupational risk assessments.
This separation carries over into graduate degree programs in the field, as will be discussed below, in which the curriculum has both a highly structured technical component and a component that relates to the professional aspects of the field, including, for example, the federal.
University faculty members who contribute to OSH teaching programs also reflect this separation. Some have training and experience in the field, and others have technical knowledge of great relevance to the field but little professional OSH experience. The latter individuals often come from backgrounds in chemistry or engineering or they are physicians or nurses specializing in fields such as epidemiology, toxicology, respiratory disease, and dermatology.
It is very important to foster the application of a wide variety of specialties and fields of knowledge to OSH problems. In addition to teaching at the college or university level, a number of OSH professionals hold other positions with a significant teaching component, either in continuing education for working professionals or in programs aimed at orienting management personnel or workers themselves to the field. Maintenance of certification in any of the four traditional OSH professions requires participation in continuing education courses, which provides incentives for developing courses and recruiting qualified instructors to meet this demand.
It should be noted that although the focus of this report is on workplace health and safety, the knowledge and skills of OSH professionals are applicable outside the workplace as well.
OSH professionals are equipped to deal with safety issues and physical, chemical, and biological hazards, wherever they occur, and the injuries and illnesses that they cause, whether in workers, consumers, or the general public.
As a result, OSH personnel are increasingly required to address environmental health and safety issues. Manufacturers may ask their industrial hygienists to monitor not only the indoor air being breathed by employees but the level of hazardous emissions being released into the air and water of the surrounding community. Public health agencies or environmental groups may hire or otherwise call upon OSH professionals to monitor pollutants in community air and water as well.
Occupational health clinics are prepared to diagnose and treat lead poisoning whether its patients are refinery workers or children eating lead-based paint in old houses. The education and. The prevention of injuries, illness, and unexpected death for workers is the basic definition of occupational safety.
Although occupational safety has historically focused on the prevention of acute traumatic injury, a broader definition generally includes the control of hazards and the prevention of accidents not only to protect the U.
Therefore, the broad discipline of safety deals with the interaction between people and the physical, chemical, biological, and psychological effects, acute or chronic, that can adversely affect their well-being.
The discipline of safety is the systematic application of principles drawn from engineering, physics, education, psychology, health and hygiene, enforcement, and management to prevent harm to people, property, and the environment. The safety professional SP normally deals with the physical aspects of the workplace and their interaction with the worker and is directly concerned with injuries caused by slips and falls or by being struck by or crushed under an object, cuts, crushes, burns, electric shock, or improper lifting, bending, or stretching.
The SP must be knowledgeable about the effects of all types of uncontrolled energy, such as electricity, pressures, weights, fluids, temperatures, motion or moving parts, radiation ionizing and nonionizing , fires, and explosions. The SP must see that workers are issued and wear well-maintained personal protective equipment such as hard hats and helmets, goggles, safety shoes, respirators, clothing that protects individuals from hazardous chemicals, and the like.
The SP must understand and apply the OSHA General Industry, Construction, and Maritime standards, the American National Standards Institute and American Society for Testing and Materials standards, and, occasionally, international standards, as well as the specific standards of the mining, agriculture, and transportation sectors and those of product safety.
From the use and control of fire to early hunters protecting themselves from the hazards of wild beasts and reptiles, humans have recognized the need for occupational safety.
Through the centuries, humans. In the United States, before the midth century, a high percentage of work was done on family farms, which consequently became the location for most worker injuries and fatalities. Later, with the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the s, factories began to replace smaller shops and the changing work environment created a challenge for the prevention of job-related injuries, illness, and death.
In response to growing worker resentment toward the hazardous work conditions in factories, Massachusetts began using factory inspectors in Ten years later, additional legislation from Boston required the safeguarding of dangerous machinery. With this incentive, organized safety programs were initiated and the SP came into existence.
Initially, the SP was a person who assumed the responsibilities of carrying out the goals and objectives of a safety program. Only the larger and more progressive sectors, in particular, the steel and insurance industries, had a dedicated SP on staff. Other businesses assigned the task of preventing injuries to an experienced employee who knew the plant layout, equipment, and functions.
These early SPs were also known as safety practitioners. Anticipate, identify, and evaluate hazardous conditions and practices.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Without a massive survey of U. However, it was possible to assemble a description of the four traditional or core OSH professions occupational safety, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, and occupational health nursing as well as three other disciplines likely to play a substantial role in the workplace of the future: employee assistance professionals, ergonomists, and occupational health psychologists. Although each of the four traditional OSH professions emphasizes different aspects of OSH, members of all four professions share the common goal of identifying hazardous conditions, materials, and practices in the workplace and assisting employers and workers in eliminating or reducing the attendant risks.
Occupational safety and health OSH , also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety OHS , occupational health ,  or occupational safety , is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety , health , and welfare of people at occupation. The goal of an occupational safety and health program is to foster a safe and healthy occupational environment. In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees. As defined by the World Health Organization WHO "occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards. It aligns with the promotion of health and safety at work, which is concerned with preventing harm from hazards in the workplace. The definition reads:. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned.
of work, and consequently in the scope of occupational safety and health, in both positive or specialized professional bodies of directives, codes of practice and produced an education and training manual, Implementing the ILO code of.
Duty of care is the requirement to exercise a level of care towards an individual to avoid injury to that individual or their property. It is based on the relationship of the different parties, the negligent act or omission and the reasonable likelihood of loss to that individual. Ystyr dyletswydd gofal yw'r gofyniad i arddel lefel o ofal tuag at unigolyn er mwyn osgoi anaf i'r unigolyn hwnnw neu ddifrod i'w eiddo.
The workplace is an important setting for health protection, health promotion and disease prevention programs. On average, Americans working full-time spend more than one-third of their day, five days per week at the workplace. While employers have a responsibility to provide a safe and hazard-free workplace, they also have abundant opportunities to promote individual health and foster a healthy work environment for more than million workers in the United States Accessed US Bureau of Labor Statistics April 12, The use of effective workplace programs and policies can reduce health risks and improve the quality of life for American workers. It will also positively impact many indirect costs such as absenteeism and worker productivity.
The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct describes a set of behaviours and values to promote and maintain good and safe professional practice in occupational therapy. It applies to all members, associate members and students and is available for reference by service users, employers, and commissioners. Professional standards defined by the College raise the quality, safety and effectiveness of occupational therapy.
Jump to navigation. COVID research continuity resources. This manual provides information about policies, procedures, and guidelines related to health and safety at Stanford.
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