File Name: kashmir india and pakistan .zip
The agreement between Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, and India's new prime minister, Manmohan Singh, to continue talks on all contentious issues including Kashmir has inspired optimism about reduced tensions in South Asia.
The relations between the two countries have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in which started the Kashmir conflict , and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion.
The agreement between Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, and India's new prime minister, Manmohan Singh, to continue talks on all contentious issues including Kashmir has inspired optimism about reduced tensions in South Asia. If decades of conflict are to be settled, however, the two sides must both do much more to address grievances and deal with the legacies of a half century and avoid too ambitious an effort to attempt everything at once.
They need to foster all forms of bilateral contact and improve the lives of Kashmiris, who have borne the worst of the conflict. Dialogue will have to be expanded beyond high governmental levels if real constituencies for peace are to be nurtured. This report builds on previous work published by ICG on Kashmir and India-Pakistan relations and was written after extensive consultations with experts representing various viewpoints.
It does not lay out a template for peace or what a comprehensive solution would look like because the circumstances for a diplomatic endgame are not yet ripe. Any such proposal at this stage would surely be rejected by both sides. Instead, it suggests steps forward to widen a peace process and make it more sustainable.
Previous attempts to reach agreement have all faltered, often after highly-charged summit meetings. It is vital that the current attempts be structured in a way that makes them more durable and less prone to disruption by extremists or violence. Many suggestions are made throughout the paper on how to do this, and how to improve the lives of Kashmiris. The main themes are outlined below. Dialogue on normalisation of relations. This is already going on but will need to deal with ways to reduce the risks of conflict and develop confidence building measures CBMs.
Previously agreed CBMs have generally failed and will need to be revitalised while new links should be established to reduce risks of conflict. A wider array of economic, social, sporting and un-official "Track II" contacts should be established. Dialogue with Kashmir. Relations between the federal government in New Delhi and the state authorities in Srinagar have improved but more could be done.
There needs to be revival of debate on Article of the constitution that granted Kashmir a high degree of autonomy, commitment to a ceasefire and willingness to follow through with policies aimed at improved security, human rights and economic welfare in the province. Pakistan's relationship with Muzaffarabad and the area of Kashmir under its control will also have to be reassessed: Pakistan should allow free elections there and reduce the role of security forces.
It should also discuss constitutional and legal changes that undermine the governance of the area. Dialogue within each country. Both Pakistan and India need to do more to open up discussion at home about normalisation and Kashmir. Parliamentary debates should be sustained outside times of crisis, and both sides ought to do more to explain the economic and social benefits of peacemaking. India will have to recognise the usefulness of a greater international role in supporting any peace and making progress to improve lives in Kashmir.
Pakistan will need to follow through on its repeated pledges to end assistance to extremists who resort to violence in Kashmir and to halt infiltration across the Line of Control. Dialogue within Kashmir. Kashmir is now a highly divided society. Efforts must intensify to mend the rifts between its three religious groups -- Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist -- to reduce the gulf between rural and urban areas and to deal with the issue of displaced people.
Dialogue across the Line of Control LoC. Improved relations between India and Pakistan will eventually have to lead to greater contacts among Kashmiris across the LoC. Both sides should permit a wider array of contacts and desist from anything that would disrupt future dialogue. All discussion on these issues will be contentious but necessary if the relationship between India and Pakistan is to gain enough ballast that it cannot again be upset as it was in and when they nearly went to war.
Kashmir has been changed for ever by more than a decade of conflict. Beyond the political discussions that need to take place, much more must be done to repair the fabric of society in a way that reduces extremism and gives new hope for the future. State Premier Mufti Mohammed Sayeed's call for a "healing hand" needs to be backed up with concerted federal and state action to boost the economy, re-establish tourism, improve human rights and security, reduce abuses by the security forces and help the many victims of the conflict.
Everything from governance to education and healthcare needs funding and inventive policymaking. Almost all the burden of ending conflict in South Asia lies with the Indian and Pakistani governments but supportive, sustained and sensitive international assistance is also required. Direct mediation or a major UN role have been rejected by New Delhi but the Indian government should recognise that some post-conflict assistance would be useful.
The U. The European Union EU should make South Asia a greater priority and be more willing to take an active part there by promoting economic and social integration and doing more to promote democracy in Pakistan.
Any number of missteps could derail the tentative process that is now under way. India and Pakistan must recognise that dialogue will only prosper if it is gradual, sustained, and held mostly outside the glare of the media. Additional and modest CBMs, including enhanced trade ties, would strengthen existing domestic stakeholders, create additional ones and generate an enabling environment for negotiations on the Kashmir dispute.
Reciprocal airstrikes by India and Pakistan have been accompanied by shelling, troop reinforcements and small arms fire. India claimed to have downed one of the intruding Pakistani jets. Pakistani officials have provided evidence, also circulated on social media, of the downed Indian jet and the captured pilot, but claims of six successful strikes conducted in Indian-controlled Kashmir are more difficult to verify. Despite ample evidence of its cross-Line of Control attacks, Indian claims of killing hundreds in the airstrike on a Jaish training base and downing a Pakistani jet lack credence since New Delhi did not provide any evidence.
Still, resort to military force for political ends increases the risks of escalation, no matter how unintended. With elections months away, Modi, responding to domestic opinion — particularly that of his hardline BJP constituency — vowed to avenge the dead in Pulwama, including at least 40 Indian paramilitary police officers. That response came in the shape of the 26 February airstrikes across the Line of Control.
Both sides have left themselves room to climb down. Pakistani and Indian officials insist that their governments have no intention to escalate hostilities further. For his part, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan called for restraint and diplomatic engagement and at the same time vividly highlighted the risks inherent in the current situation. This apparently was the case of the 14 February suicide bomber, who came from a village close to the site of the Pulwama attack.
The international community, including China, the EU and European governments, have called on India and Pakistan to exercise restraint and prevent further escalation.
In Washington, expressing U. If the two sides are to step down from the brink, their leaders, civil and military, should resist the temptation to pander to domestic constituencies and tone down hostile rhetoric. There is little foreseeable prospect, no matter how desirable, of the top Indian and Pakistani leaderships re-establishing direct communication channels and bilateral dialogue.
These have been frozen since the terror attacks in Indian Punjab and Indian-administered Kashmir, which New Delhi attributed to Pakistan-based militants. Nevertheless, New Delhi and Islamabad should immediately and urgently revive the hotline between their Directors General for Military Operations, a crucial mechanism to prevent unintended and inadvertent conflict escalation.
Pakistan should rethink its longstanding policy of supporting anti-India jihadist proxies, such as Jaish, that — as this latest round of escalation shows — are far more of a threat to national security than an asset.
Five forms of dialogue will be needed to work toward a lasting peace: Dialogue on normalisation of relations. Up Next. Students chant slogans under the shade of national flag, after Pakistan shot down two Indian military aircrafts, according to Pakistani officials, during a march in Lahore, Pakistan 28 February What happened exactly?
Resort to military force for political ends increases the risks of escalation, no matter how unintended. Facebook Email. New Delhi and Islamabad should immediately and urgently revive the hotline between their Directors General for Military Operations, a crucial mechanism to prevent unintended and inadvertent conflict escalation.
Yes, I Agree.
With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, tensions and concerns over a serious military confrontation between nuclear-armed neighbors India and Pakistan remain high. In August , following a deployment of tens of thousands of additional troops and paramilitary forces to the region, the Indian government moved to revoke Article of the Indian constitution, removing the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. India-administered Kashmir remains under lockdown , with internet and phone services intermittently cutoff and thousands of people detained. Pakistan retaliated a day later with air strikes in Indian-administered Kashmir. Territorial disputes over the Kashmir region sparked two of the three major Indo-Pakistani wars in and , and a limited war in Although both countries have maintained a fragile cease-fire since , they regularly exchange fire across the contested border, known as the Line of Control.
The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world. The nations of India and Pakistan have fiercely contested each other over Kashmir, fighting three major wars and two minor wars. It has gained immense international attention given the fact that both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and this conflict represents a threat to global security. To understand this conflict, it is essential to look back into the history of the area. In August of , India and Pakistan were on the cusp of independence from the British.
United Nations-mandated ceasefire. The Indo-Pakistani War of — , sometimes known as the First Kashmir War , was an armed conflict that was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir from to It was the first of four Indo-Pakistani wars that was fought between the two newly-independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after its independence by launching tribal lashkar militias from Waziristan ,  in an effort to capture Kashmir , the future of which hung in the balance.
Since , India and Pakistan have been locked in conflict over Kashmir, a majority-Muslim region in the northernmost part of India. The mountainous, 86,square-mile territory was once a princely state. Now, it is claimed by both India and Pakistan. From the 17th to the 20th century, Britain ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, first indirectly through the British East India Company, then from directly through the British crown. Britain had historically had separate electorates for Muslim citizens and reserved some political seats specifically for Muslims; that not only hemmed Muslims into a minority status, but fueled a growing Muslim separatist movement.
The agreement between Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, and India's new prime minister, Manmohan Singh, to continue talks on all contentious issues including Kashmir has inspired optimism about reduced tensions in South Asia. If decades of conflict are to be settled, however, the two sides must both do much more to address grievances and deal with the legacies of a half century and avoid too ambitious an effort to attempt everything at once. They need to foster all forms of bilateral contact and improve the lives of Kashmiris, who have borne the worst of the conflict. Dialogue will have to be expanded beyond high governmental levels if real constituencies for peace are to be nurtured. This report builds on previous work published by ICG on Kashmir and India-Pakistan relations and was written after extensive consultations with experts representing various viewpoints. It does not lay out a template for peace or what a comprehensive solution would look like because the circumstances for a diplomatic endgame are not yet ripe.
Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать. - Это зашифрованный вирус, болван; ваше счастье, что вам не удалось его вскрыть. - Но… - Сделка отменяется! - крикнул Стратмор. - Я не Северная Дакота.
Сьюзан снова завладели прежние сомнения: правильно ли они поступают, решив сохранить ключ и взломать Цифровую крепость. Ей было не по себе, хотя пока, можно сказать, им сопутствовала удача. Чудесным образом Северная Дакота обнаружился прямо под носом и теперь попал в западню. Правда, оставалась еще одна проблема - Дэвид до сих пор не нашел второй экземпляр ключа. Она молилась, чтобы его усилия увенчались успехом.
Мы ищем число, а не произвольный набор букв. - Четыре умножить на шестнадцать, - спокойно сказал Дэвид. - Вспомни арифметику, Сьюзан. Сьюзан посмотрела на Беккера, наблюдавшего за ней с экрана. Вспомнить арифметику.
Я думаю, он собирался оставаться поблизости и вовремя все это остановить. Глядя на экран, Фонтейн увидел, как полностью исчезла первая из пяти защитных стен. - Бастион рухнул! - крикнул техник, сидевший в задней части комнаты. - Обнажился второй щит. - Нужно приступать к отключению, - настаивал Джабба.
- Надеюсь, удача не оставит. Беккер опустился на колени на холодный каменный пол и низко наклонил голову. Человек, сидевший рядом, посмотрел на него в недоумении: так не принято было вести себя в храме Божьем. - Enferno, - извиняясь, сказал Беккер. - Я плохо себя чувствую.
Как правильно ответить. - Viste el anillo? - настаивал обладатель жуткого голоса. Двухцветный утвердительно кивнул, убежденный, что честность - лучшая политика.
Нужно выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. У нас… - Он нас сделал, - сказал Стратмор, не поднимая головы. - Танкадо обманул всех .