File Name: mobile phones and the evolution of social behaviour .zip
Young people use the mobile phone in positive ways to organise and maintain their social networks. These can include ostracism and cyber bullying. Similarly, the mobile phone has lead to changed dynamics in the family, with issues of safety and surveillance from a parental perspective leading to negotiated changing freedoms for young people.
The impact of the mobile phone on the school as an institution has not however, received as much research. Disruptions to lessons, incidences of cheating and bullying are some of the negative impacts, while texting parents of truants seems to be the only positive for the school. Further research is needed into the consequences of mobile phone use in schools.
This has been paralleled in the early 21st century by the advent of the mobile phone. This is extremely similar to the fixed telephone in the early 20th century, where telephone engineers explained that the telephone was made for the business world and not for social conversation Flinchy, The growth of mobile phone technology is demonstrated by the fact that in the number of mobile phone users worldwide, surpassed those of fixed-phone users Srivastava, It has been predicted that by the end of , the number of mobile phone subscribers worldwide will reach 2 billion Deloitte Research, and in Australia will reach While these figures are impressive, the rate at which young people have adopted the mobile phone in many parts of the world is even more impressive.
The mobile phone had been in existence for about a decade before young people really adopted this technology. Various surveys worldwide have found high rates of mobile phone use amongst young people. Thus, in recent years, the number of adolescents owning a mobile phone has risen so dramatically that adolescents are now more likely to own and use a mobile phone than their parents Netsafe, Surveys have consistently shown that young people even prefer their mobile phone to television or the Internet Enpocket, ; Hession, The mobile phone is a status symbol for young people.
Indeed, even the ownership of a mobile phone indicates that one is socially connected, accessible and in demand. This paper explores both the positive and the negative impact of the device on these three institutions. Adolescence is a time of transcending the family boundaries and generating more extensive networks with peers. As all social life is based on ongoing interpersonal interaction, the fixed telephone has been an essential instrument to enable young people to organise their social life Manceron, This ability to communicate has been extended further by the use of the mobile phone which not only enables coordination free from the constraints of physical proximity, but also of spatial immobility; that is, the need to stay at specific places Geser, The ability of the mobile phone to directly contact a person allows young people even more flexibility and spontaneity in their lives.
Relational However, the most important impact the mobile phone has had, is to connect young people and their peer group. Even the functional use of the mobile phone is intertwined with the relational use; that is, it serves to link peers more closely to one another even more than the fixed phone, as it is done without adult interference. This relational aspect is important as shown by the rules of engagement. These include hiding behind the technology from emotionally distressing events, such as ending relationships, ostracism of those without mobile phones and cyber bullying.
Texting avoids awkward silences and having to make conversation. It enables shy or reserved young people to communicate without embarrassing emotions while encouraging candid or even cheeky text Plant, Texting, because of the character limit, by its very nature needs to be brief, without the need for social niceties.
In relation to the ostracism of young people who do not have a mobile phone, there appears to be contradictions in the research. An Australian study reported that nearly half of adolescents who did not own a mobile phone reported feeling left out of social interactions, and a third felt pressured sometimes by their friends to get one Matthews, Perhaps this suggests that adolescents are not ostracising non-mobile phone owners by deliberating excluding them but perhaps do leave them out because they cannot be contacted easily.
It is also possible however, that respondents answered this question in a socially desirable manner. Cyber bullying, as coined by Canadian Bill Belsey www. The consequences of cyber bullying are yet to be researched but have the potential to be even more serious than face-to-face bullying. When bullies abuse verbally, the victim may not remember every word, but with texting the targeted student can read the message repeatedly. Impact of the mobile phone on the family Safety One of the most cited reasons that parents want their children to have a mobile phone is for safety Geser, ; Ling, a; Srivastava, There appears to be an over reliance however, on the use of the mobile phone as a source of protection for children.
There was one parent however, who acknowledged that this was only a perception. There needs to be trust in the parental child relationship, in that the child will be truthful in reporting their location. The safety issue is interesting as part of the double-edged sword that the impact of mobile phones have on the family. The mobile phone means thus both enabling the child to call parents if they are in trouble but also provides a surveillance capacity of parents phoning young people. This impact on the evolving relationship in the family has been interpreted by some researchers as undermining the authority of parents.
Some researchers postulate that the mobile phone has altered the power in parent-child relationships Ling, a in that peers can contact each other without parental knowledge. Parents identify where their children are and often by texting maintain an almost constant dialogue, similar to face-to-face conversation.
Conversely, the ability to directly communicate with their children allows parents more freedom. However, it also allows the parents the freedom to go out whilst still being able to be contacted at a moments notice Davie et al. As Ling and Helmersen argue, the mobile phone can assist the non-custodial parent to contact their child without interference from the other parent if relations are not cordial between the parents. Ling and Helmersen argue that mobile phones fulfil a need when a child transitions from elementary to middle school at about age years and enters adolescence.
About 12 is the age when the traditional phone was also employed for peer group co-ordination and young people made more social connections with their peers outside of family activities Skelton, However, many pre-teens also want a mobile phone as a status symbol of impending adolescence, possibly because it is seen as a symbol of independence from the family Ling, a.
Additionally, parents see the mobile phone as a source of safety for their preteens. However, considering the figures of adoption cited at the beginning of this paper, it would seem that this age might be getting younger. There have also been anecdotal reports of young people texting under bedcovers at night and using their mobile phones as their alarm clock and torch.
Financial issues In addition, there are issues of financial disputes in families over mobile phone payments. Thus, overall there seems to be little negative impact of the mobile phone on family relationships. Impact of the mobile phone on the institution of the school The school and the family are the traditional agents of socialisation. The impact of the mobile phone on the institution of the school has surprisingly attracted little research attention.
This is surprising given the often conflicting priorities of young people, parents and teachers in relation to the device, with teachers concerned about discipline issues in the classroom and parents concerned about being able to contact their children at any time Srivastava, The majority of researchers have found that the mobile phone leads to problematic use in schools.
Whilst in school grounds students take on their prescribed student roles, free from contact with the outside world. The mobile phone however, allows the blending of roles and interrupts students whilst in their student role.
Fixed telephones in schools allowed minimal disruption but with their parents eagerness to maintain contact, the mobile phone is becoming part of the classroom. The main issue for teachers is the disruption to classroom learning that can occur due to the disruptive nature of mobile phone calls and texting. The functionality of SMS lets students send and receive messages unobtrusively Geser, Combining this with the ease of hiding the device due to its small size, makes it very difficult for teachers to control.
One negative impact of the mobile phone is the anecdotal evidence that students are relying on their parents to solve school problems such as forgetting sports clothes. Students call parents, who ring teachers to persuade them to allow their child to participate without the correct clothing.
They are therefore unlikely to be thrown on their own resources or to encounter adventure or surprise as much as previously. Students have always cheated via taking notes into class, or writing notes on hands Ling, a however, the use of the mobile phone to cheat is much more sophisticated and it is harder to detect.
With many mobile phones now incorporating a digital camera or video, there is a danger in schools that inappropriate pictures will be taken because of the portability and discrete nature of the camera. Pictures can be taken quickly without the knowledge of the person being photographed.
Instances such as the videoing by a mobile phone camera of a girl beaten by bullies in a school in Victoria SBS Insight, and a similar videotaping of children raping another child in England Sunday Mail, show some of the negative uses of the mobile phone camera. One infamous example is a self-made film of a year-old Quebec boy emulating a Star Wars fight which was posted on the Internet by his classmates.
In another incident an overweight boy was photographed by a mobile phone camera in the school change room and the picture posted on the Internet Mitchell, Most victims of mobile phone theft are under 18 years of age and the phones are stolen by the same age group as well. This can put additional strain on school administration if the theft occurs at or near school and staff are expected to investigate.
One of the few positive uses of the mobile phone in schools is texting parents when students are absent from school. School policies on mobile phone use Although guidelines have been produced to assist teachers to facilitate responsible use within schools AMTA, , inappropriate mobile phone use remains problematic. Schools now have to provide convincing reasons why students cannot receive calls in the classroom and have to exercise some authority over their use.
Schools in Queensland have been urged to develop policies based on promulgated guidelines to manage student use of mobile phones Bligh, The use of mobile phones in class is considered disruptive and should be discouraged.
However, the guidelines also acknowledge that mobile phones could be needed in genuine emergencies or could be incorporated into the learning program.
Additionally, disciplinary action is recommended against students who cheat in exams, take inappropriate photographs or who send harassing or threatening messages. However, it is not known if schools have policies related to mobile phones and whether they are being enforced.
Some schools have already issued rules about mobile phone use to counteract these negative impacts. However, only about half of the adolescents said they always obeyed these rules Matthews,
They are using their phones to stay in touch with friends and parents. They are using them to share stories and photos. They are using them to entertain themselves when they are bored. They are using them to micro-coordinate their schedules and face-to-face gatherings. And some are using their phones to go online to browse, to participate in social networks, and check their emails. This is the sunny side of the story. Teens are also using mobile phones to cheat on tests and to skirt rules at school and with their parents.
This study investigated the use of mobile telephones by males and females in a public bar frequented by professional people. We found that, unlike women, men who possess mobile telephones more often publicly display them, and that these displays were related to the number of men in a social group, but not the number of women. This result was not due simply to a greater number of males who have telephones: we found an increase with male social group size in the proportion of available telephones that were on display. Similarly, there was a positive relationship between the number of visible telephones and the ratio of males to females. Our results further show that the increased display of telephones in groups with more males is not due to the ostensive function of these devices i.
Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states. Culture Health and Sexuality 17 2 : , Interference of mobile phones and digitally enhanced cordless telecommunications mobile phones in renal scintigraphy. Clinical Nuclear Medicine 38 8 : , Adolescents' risk perceptions on mobile phones and their base stations, their trust to authorities and incivility in using mobile phones: a cross-sectional survey on high school students in Izmir, Turkey. Environmental Health 10,
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This study investigated the use of mobile telephones by males and females in a public bar frequented by professional people. We found that, unlike women, men who possess mobile telephones more often publicly display them, and that these displays were related to the number of men in a social group, but not the number of women. This result was not due simply to a greater number of males who have telephones: we found an increase with male social group size in the proportion of available telephones that were on display.
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Конгресс собирался принять закон, объявляющий этот новый алгоритм национальным стандартом, что должно было решить проблему несовместимости, с которой сталкивались корпорации, использующие разные алгоритмы. Конечно, просить АН Б приложить руку к совершенствованию системы общего пользования - это все равно что предложить приговоренному к смертной казни самому сколотить себе гроб. ТРАНСТЕКСТ тогда еще не был создан, и принятие стандарта лишь облегчило бы процесс шифрования и значительно затруднило АНБ выполнение его и без того нелегкой задачи.