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Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics , a display of the effects produced by firework devices.
Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials confetti for example. They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework.
In the latter case they may provide their own propulsion skyrocket or be shot into the air by a mortar aerial shell. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material, often pyrotechnic stars.
A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes, often variously colored.
A skyrocket is a common form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used in warfare. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, and a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States. Such rocket technology has also been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets.
Fireworks were originally invented in China. Cultural events and festivities such as the Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in the world. Modern colored fireworks were invented in Europe in the s. The earliest fireworks came from China during the Song dynasty — In China, pyrotechnicians were respected for their knowledge of complex techniques in mounting firework displays.
During the Han dynasty BC — AD , people threw bamboo stems into a fire to produce an explosion with a loud sound. During the Song dynasty, many of the common people could purchase various kinds of fireworks from market vendors. In , a large fireworks display in a martial demonstration was held to entertain Emperor Huizong of Song r.
A Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote of rockets, fireworks, and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources, such as his references to fireworks as "Chinese flowers". In regards to colored fireworks, this was derived and developed from earlier possibly Han dynasty or soon thereafter Chinese application of chemical substances to create colored smoke and fire.
Fireworks were produced in Europe by the 14th century, becoming popular by the 17th century. Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by George Frideric Handel in to celebrate the Peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle , which had been declared the previous year.
Subsequent developments revealed that oxidations with the chlorates of barium, strontium, copper, and sodium result in intense emission of bright colors. The isolation of metallic magnesium and aluminium marked another breakthrough as these metals burn with an intense silvery light. Improper use of fireworks may be dangerous, both to the person operating them risks of burns and wounds and to bystanders; in addition, they may start fires after landing on flammable material.
For this reason, the use of fireworks is generally legally restricted. Fireworks are also a problem for animals, both domestic and wild, which can be frightened by their noise, leading to them running away, often into danger, or hurting themselves on fences or in other ways in an attempt to escape. Pyrotechnical competitions involving fireworks are held in many countries. The most prestigious fireworks competition is the Montreal Fireworks Festival , an annual competition held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The World Pyro Olympics is an annual competition amongst the top fireworks companies in the world. It is held in Manila, Philippines. The event is one of the largest and most intense international fireworks competitions. Enthusiasts in the United States have formed clubs which unite hobbyists and professionals. The groups provide safety instruction and organize meetings and private "shoots" at remote premises where members shoot commercial fireworks as well as fire pieces of their own manufacture.
Clubs secure permission to fire items otherwise banned by state or local ordinances. Competition among members and between clubs, demonstrating everything from single shells to elaborate displays choreographed to music, are held.
One of the oldest clubs is Crackerjacks, Inc. The Pyrotechnics Guild International , Inc. It is notable for its large number of members, around 3, in total. The PGI exists solely to further the safe usage and enjoyment of both professional grade and consumer grade fireworks while both advancing the art and craft of pyrotechnics and preserving its historical aspects.
Each August the PGI conducts its annual week-long convention, where some the world's biggest and best fireworks displays occur. Vendors, competitors, and club members come from around the US and from various parts of the globe to enjoy the show and to help out at this all-volunteer event.
Aside from the nightly firework shows, the competition is a highlight of the convention. This is a completely unique event where individual classes of hand-built fireworks are competitively judged, ranging from simple fireworks rockets to extremely large and complex aerial shells. Some of the biggest, best, most intricate fireworks displays in the United States take place during the convention week. Amateur and professional members can come to the convention to purchase fireworks, paper goods, novelty items, non-explosive chemical components and much more at the PGI trade show.
Before the nightly fireworks displays and competitions, club members have a chance to enjoy open shooting of any and all legal consumer or professional grade fireworks, as well as testing and display of hand-built fireworks. The week ends with the Grand Public Display on Friday night, which gives the chosen display company a chance to strut their stuff in front of some of the world's biggest fireworks aficionados. The stakes are high and much planning is put into the show.
Both fireworks and firecrackers are a popular tradition during Halloween in Vancouver , although apparently this is not the custom elsewhere in Canada. In the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland there are many fireworks displays, during the Halloween season. The largest are in the cities of Belfast , Derry , and Dublin. The Derry Halloween fireworks attracted an audience of over 20, people.
In Australia , fireworks displays are used in the public celebration of major events such as New Year's Eve. In France , fireworks are traditionally displayed on the eve of Bastille day 14 July to commemorate the French revolution and the storming of the Bastille on that same day in Every city in France lights up the sky for the occasion with a special mention to Paris that offers a spectacle around the Eiffel Tower.
In Hungary fireworks are used on 20 August, which is a national celebration day . Indians throughout the world celebrate with fireworks as part of their popular "festival of lights" Diwali in Oct-Nov every year. The festivals consist of large fireworks shows, the largest of which use between , and , rounds Tondabayashi, Osaka , and can attract more than , spectators.
Even today, men and women attend these events wearing the traditional Yukata , summer Kimono , or Jinbei men only , collecting in large social circles of family or friends to sit picnic-like, eating and drinking, while watching the show.
The first fireworks festival in Japan was held in Sumidagawa Fireworks Festival is one of the many being celebrated annually throughout Japan in summer. Fireworks have been used in Malta for hundreds of years. When the islands were ruled by the Order of St John , fireworks were used on special occasions such as the election of a new Grand Master , the appointment of a new Pope or the birth of a prince.
Nowadays, fireworks are used in village feasts throughout the summer. The Malta International Fireworks Festival is also held annually. Pyrotechnics experts from around the world have competed in Monte Carlo , Monaco since The festival runs from July to August every year, and the winner returns in 18 November for the fireworks display on the night before the National Day of Monaco.
The festival features local and foreign teams which launch displays on different nights. While currently non-competitive in nature, the organizer has plans to introduce a competitive element in the future. The annual festival has grown in magnitude, from 4, rounds used in , to 6, in , to over 9, in Busan International Fireworks Festival is one of the most significant fireworks festivals in Asia. In Switzerland fireworks are often used on 1 August, which is a national celebration day.
The Guardian newspaper said in that Britain's biggest Guy Fawkes night events were: . America's earliest settlers brought their enthusiasm for fireworks to the United States. Fireworks and black ash were used to celebrate important events long before the American Revolutionary War.
In , Disneyland , in Anaheim, California , pioneered the commercial use of aerial fireworks launched with compressed air rather than gunpowder. The display shell explodes in the air using an electronic timer. The advantages of compressed air launch are a reduction in fumes, and much greater accuracy in height and timing. In addition to large public displays, people often buy small amounts of fireworks for their own celebrations. Fireworks on general sale are usually less powerful than professional fireworks.
Types include firecrackers, rockets, cakes multishot aerial fireworks and smoke balls. Fireworks can also be used in an agricultural capacity as bird scarers. Colors in fireworks are usually generated by pyrotechnic stars —usually just called stars —which produce intense light when ignited. Stars contain five basic types of ingredients.
Some of the more common color-producing compounds are tabulated here. The color of a compound in a firework will be the same as its color in a flame test shown at right. Not all compounds that produce a colored flame are appropriate for coloring fireworks, however.
Ideal colorants will produce a pure, intense color when present in moderate concentration. This is explained by light emission from an incandescent solid particle in contrast to the element-specific emission from the vapor phase of a flame. Low boiling metals can form sparks with an intensively colored glowing shell surrounding the basic particle. Li 2 CO 3 lithium carbonate LiCl lithium chloride. RbNO 3 rubidium nitrate.
The brightest stars, often called Mag Stars , are fueled by aluminium. Magnesium is rarely used in the fireworks industry due to its lack of ability to form a protective oxide layer. Often an alloy of both metals called magnalium is used.
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Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics , a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials confetti for example. They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may provide their own propulsion skyrocket or be shot into the air by a mortar aerial shell.
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Free Pyrotechnics Information Site. The site features one of the most current Fireworks and Pyrotechnic link pages on the web last up dated The list of Pyrotechnic Chemical data has been compiled from multiple sources. Different types of powders, allow
- Он перевел взгляд на схему. - Там темно как в преисподней! - закричала. Джабба вздохнул и положил фонарик рядом с. - Мидж, во-первых, там есть резервное электроснабжение. Так что полной тьмы быть не .
Сьюзан прошла мимо него с поразившим его выражением человека, потрясенного предательством. Коммандер не сказал ни слова и, медленно наклонившись, поднял пейджер. Новых сообщений не. Сьюзан прочитала их .
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