File Name: application of theory x and y .zip
Although influential value of this theory in organization history might be approved, there are two primary issues, invalidity and superficial recognition, which criticisms revolve around. In contrast to the principles of conventional management mentioned as Theory X, the advocated Theory Y illuminated a cluster of new or redefined concepts such as self-fulfilling prophecy and responsibility.
The paper identifies major management approaches cited by McGregor as being examples of his Theory Y management principles. The paper traces the historical development of each of these approaches and their application today. This paper reviews McGregor's original article, then traces the historical development and application of McGregor's major concepts through the identification and review of relevant historical and contemporary literature. Major findings provide strong evidence that McGregor's Theory Y concepts and related management approaches have grown in application, are closely related to appreciative inquiry and social construction. There is also evidence that McGregor's concept of management may be universal and has application across national cultural boundaries. The findings indicate that McGregor's concepts have widespread acceptance and application today, and have been systematically and empirically related to organizational success and effectiveness.
These theories are based on the premise that management has to assemble all the factors of production, including human beings, to get the work done. McGregor believed that management can use either of the needs to motivate his employees, as grouped under theory X and theory Y. But however, the theory Y yields better results than the theory X, how? Theory X: Theory X relies on the authoritarian style of management, where the managers are required to give instructions and keep a close check on each employee. As it is assumed, the employees are not motivated, and they dislike working. This theory is based on the following assumptions:.
PDF | On Nov 1, , Mohammad Saiful Islam and others published Application of Mcgregor's Theory X and Theory Y: Perception of.
Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas.
The purpose of this research paper is to study the application of well-known theory X and theory Y in the banking sector of Bangladesh based on the perception of management toward the employees. Analyzing the perception of the management seems rational as banking job appears highly paid, high target oriented, stressful job now where employee satisfaction is significantly related with how management handle them from their perception toward the employees. Primary data has been collected from managers selected randomly through quota sampling who are serving inseveral branches of different banks surrounding all over the country 8 divisions and secondary data has been collected from some banking reviews and literature reviews. The results of the analysis revels strong evidence statistically significant that management of banks holds the assumptions of theory Y regarding their employees such as employees inherently like to work, can exercise self- control, can exercise self- direction, do not avoid responsibility, have ingenuity and creativity in problem solving, are not narrowly distributed in the population, have unlimited potential and employees are committed to objectives against rewards associated with achievement. The research paper recommends instigating research institutions in banks besides training institutions for encouraging innovation and financial engineering.
During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on […]. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated.
In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. However, neither of these extremes is optimal.
He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment or culture where workers can show and develop their creativity. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff!
The main purpose of the study is to discuss the application of theory X and Y in classroom management, by explaining the meaning of motivation, theory X and Y.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision.
Он чуть ли не бегом бросился к ней, схватил трубку и вставил в отверстие телефонную карту. Соединения долго не. Наконец раздались длинные гудки. Ну давай .
Он нарушил правила. Из-за него чуть было не произошел полный крах нашей разведки. Я его выгнал. На лице Сьюзан на мгновение мелькнуло недоумение. Она побледнела и прошептала: - О Боже… Стратмор утвердительно кивнул, зная, что она догадалась.