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*The other part was looking him in the eye.*

The study of microstrip patch antennas has made great progress in recent years. Compared with conventional antennas, microstrip patch antennas have more advantages and better prospects. They are lighter in weight, low volume, low cost, low profile, smaller in dimension and ease of fabrication and conformity.

Peter L. System analysis is a powerful tool for researching modern wireless systems. This includes breaking such systems into parts that make them up and studying how these parts work together.

Antenna is an integral part of any wireless system, so it should be also represented as a two-port network. In this paper, an analytical model of an arbitrary single antenna in the form of a two-port network, whose electrical and noise parameters are described in terms of scattering matrices, is obtained.

The initial data for creating the model are the antenna fundamental parameters, viz. Applications of this model for antenna analysis operating in the transmitting, receiving, and scattering modes are demonstrated. A numerical example using the antenna scattering matrix for computer simulation of a wireless connection is given. At the same time, the antenna can also be viewed as a transducer that converts waves traveling in a transmission line to waves propagating in free space, and vice versa [ 4 , 5 ].

Such mutual conversions are often accompanied by energy losses, which not only reduce the conversion efficiency, but also generate thermal noise that can affect the receiving system sensitivity. Therefore, often there is a need to represent an antenna in the form of a two-port network, whose one terminal is connected to the transmission line running to a generator or receiver, and the second one is connected to a transmission line simulating the energy exchange channel with free space.

One of the first attempts to represent an antenna in the form of an electromagnetic wave converter was made in [ 6 ], where the field in free space was presented as an infinite sum of spherical harmonics, which made this antenna model inconvenient for use. Further attempts of creating an antenna two-port network were made repeatedly [ 7 — 17 ].

The authors in [ 7 — 13 ] used a theoretical approach; however, unfortunately, they did not obtain a complete analytical description of the antenna two-port network. In [ 14 — 16 ], the authors developed a technique for the experimental determination of S-parameters of the antenna two-port network, which is based on the Wheeler cap method.

However, the application of the method is limited to the microwave range, when the manufacture of the cap does not cause difficulties. It is clear for the antennas of HF and of lower frequency ranges that this method is practically not applicable for obvious reasons. The analytical form of the two-port network S-matrix was derived from [ 17 ] for the dipole antenna, but the specific topic of the paper did not allow the authors to generalize those results to arbitrary antennas.

In this paper, an extended theory of a two-port network associated with an arbitrary single-input antenna is developed.

The electric and noise parameters of this network Figure 1 are described in terms of wave matrices by the following equations [ 18 ]: where are scattering matrix elements of the two-port network; , and , are normalized complex amplitudes of the incident and reflected harmonic waves at the input 1 and output 2 ports, as is shown in Figure 1 ; and are complex amplitudes of the noise waves outgoing from the two-port network.

The sources of these waves are inside the antenna; their mean values are , and spectral densities are characterized by the covariance matrix C of noise waves:. In Section 2 , the scattering matrix for a dipole-type antenna is found. In Section 3 , the scattering matrix for an arbitrary single antenna is derived. In Section 4 , the noise C-matrix for both dipole and arbitrary antenna is determined. In Section 5 , application of the obtained matrices for determining antenna parameters operating in transmission, reception, and scattering modes is illustrated.

In Section 6 , a numerical example using the antenna scattering matrix for computer simulation of a wireless connection is given. Figure 2 a shows the well-known Thevenin equivalent circuit of a dipole operating in the transmission mode [ 2 ].

The radiation resistance shown here is a principal element of the dipole equivalent circuit, since without it the dipole ceases to radiate. The other two circuit elements, and X in Figure 2 a , are the parasitic elements, which do not take part in the radiation process. The first of them reduces the antenna efficiency, and the second one limits the possibility of matching the dipole with the generator, so they as a rule are trying to get rid of them, or at least to minimize them as much as possible.

We present the circuit shown in Figure 2 a as a cascaded connection of two two-port networks Figure 2 b. The first of them is a series impedance inserted in a transmission line of characteristic impedance. Its scattering matrix is [ 19 ]. The second two-port network II converts the waves propagating along the transmission line into waves propagating in free space, i. Its input impedance is a resistor that is virtual, because the power in it does not convert into heat, but is radiated into free space.

We find the scattering matrix of the two-port network II, assuming that its input terminals are connected to a transmission line of the characteristic impedance , and the output terminals are connected to a virtual transmission line that simulates free space.

The characteristic impedance of a virtual line remains to be determined. The element of the desired matrix is the input reflection coefficient :. As a result, the obtained S-matrix of the lossless antenna has the form.

The sought dipole S-matrix resulting from cascading of the two two-port networks Figure 2 b can be derived using [ 19 ] and expressed as follows:. As follows from [ 19 ], the scattering matrix S in 9 describes also a two-port network in the form of the serial impedance inserted between two transmission lines of the different characteristic impedances and Figure 3.

However, the radiation resistance of the antennas is not very suitable for this role, since they, as a rule, depend on the frequency. To get rid of this drawback, we will add an transformer to the circuit Figure 3 , which transforms the resistance to , and select its transformation coefficient as. Note that the addition of a transformer does not change the scattering matrix S 9 of the entire four-terminal network since the scattering matrix of this transformer is a unity matrix.

The transmission line section included into the two-port network shifts out the port reference plane on distance l producing the phase delay in 8 , where is the wavelength in free space. Both the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3 and expression 9 can be used to calculate the scattering matrix not only of a dipole antenna but also for any other antenna having a uniquely defined terminals voltage and current.

Their ensemble includes all antennas fed by the TEM transmission lines. There are the dipole impedance Z and the radiation resistance in 9 ; however, for many antennas these parameters cannot be unambiguously determined.

Among them are horns, slotted waveguide antennas, and others, fed by waveguides in which the TEM waves cannot exist. The result is where is the impedance mismatch factor between the antenna terminals and transmission line; is the phase delay factor ensuring the equivalence of expressions 9 and If we assume , 9 and 10 are somewhat simplified, but in this case the output reference plane of the two-port network shifts into location of the impedance step discontinuity.

Equation 10 can be simplified even more if we set :. We find the covariance spectral matrix C of the noise waves of an antenna two-port network using the Bosma theorem [ 20 ]: where is the ambient temperature and is the Boltzmann constant. Substituting 9 and 10 into 12 , we obtain the following two expressions: the first of which is convenient for calculating the covariance noise matrix of a dipole antenna and the second one for an arbitrary antenna.

The antenna is excited by the wave traveling from the signal generator, and there are no other sources. Then, the two-port equations reduce to. From the first equation, we can determine the current at the antenna input terminals as and then find the antenna radiation field [ 2 ] at the observation point : where is the dipole effective length; is the intrinsic impedance of free space.

Antenna-radiated power is obtained as. It follows that the square of the module is the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna into free space to the wave power arriving from the signal generator by the transmission line.

Here, we assume the antenna being excited only by a plane EM wave which is traveling in free space and carrying the wanted signal. The wave comes from the direction, has the electrical field strength , and its polarization is matched with antenna polarization.

This plane wave generates the traveling wave in the virtual transmission line, which at port 2 of a two-port network is determined as follows: where is an open-circuit voltage at the dipole terminals induced by an incident plane EM wave. The power that carries the incident wave is where is an antenna absorption area [ 21 ] related to the effective area as , is the power flux density of an incident plane wave.

It should be noted that is the available power, which an antenna can extract from an incident plane wave. Since other excitation sources are absent , the first of the two-port network equations 1 is reduced to the form of. The signal power received by the antenna is determined as. It follows from 20 and 21 that the square of the module is the ratio of the power , transferred by the antenna into the matched transmission line, to the available power , which can be extracted from the incident wave.

The intrinsic noise power sent by the antenna to the receiver can be calculated from the C-matrix 14 : where B is the receiver bandwidth. An incident electromagnetic wave induces currents on the antenna which produce a scattering field. The total antenna scattering field can be represented as a sum of the structural residual and the reradiated fields [ 22 ]. The S-matrix approach allows calculating only the reradiated field.

We find this field for the antenna terminated with the load impedance. In this case, the second equation in 1 will have the form where. For determination of the antenna reradiated field, we can use 15 , which in view of 23 takes the form.

The antenna absorbed power is given by. When , the absorbed power reaches the maximum. When , then and the absorbed power is and the reradiated power is.

From this equation, it follows that the square of the module is the ratio of the power , reradiated by the antenna into free space, when the transmission line is terminated by a nonreflective load, to the available power , which can be extracted from the incident wave.

Now, using 24 and 25 , we find the load impedance that ensures : or the corresponding load reflection coefficient. For the lossless antenna , the condition corresponds with the conjugate matching condition , when the total absorbed power is delivered to load. For a lossy antenna, the impedance in the form of a passive load can be realized only when , since otherwise should be negative. And finally, the structural scattering field is the total scattering field of the antenna loaded with impedance , since there is no field 27 when.

Consider the signal transmission between two active antennas, which are components of a wireless communication connection Figure 4 in the 2. The distance between the antennas r satisfies the far zone condition. Figure 6 shows the frequency dependence of the antenna impedance. The antenna gain was determined by integrating its radiation pattern obtained as a result of the simulation; its maximum is 9. The radiation efficiency was determined by the formula [ 23 ]; it decreases linearly from —0.

These data made it possible to calculate the patch antenna scattering matrix 11 ; the magnitudes of its elements are shown in Figure 7 as a function of frequency. The other circuit elements relate to the power amplifier, among which there is a transistor MGFa, as well as input and output matching circuits on the transmission line segments and open-circuited stubs.

A similar circuit model of the ARA is shown in Figure 9. It consists of the same patch antenna and a low-noise amplifier, consisting of a BFP transistor and an input matching circuit.

The matching circuits were tuned in such a way as to obtain the greatest gain of each of the two-port networks; their optimization was not carried out since we did not set ourselves such a task.

Figure 10 shows the frequency dependencies of the transducer power gains [ 26 ] of these two-port networks obtained by simulating them in the Analog AWR Design Environment. Both curves in Figure 10 have maxima at 2. Now, we can determine the parameters of the wireless connection WLC shown in Figure 4. We represent it as three cascaded two-port networks Figure 11 , two of which are associated with active antennas, the parameters of which are known, and the third, FSM Free Space Module , with a signal propagation between them.

Find the S-parameters of the two-port network FSM. Believing that there are no reflecting objects on the wave propagation path between the antennas, we can assume. If the antennas are polarization matched and the radiation pattern maximum of each is directed to the other antenna, then.

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This Web site gives you access to the rich tools and resources available for this text. You can access these resources in two ways: Using the menu at the top, select a chapter. Analysis and Design of a Compact Leaky-Wave Antenna for This book introduces the fundamental principles of antenna theory and explains how to apply them to the analysis, design, and measurements of antennas. Due to the variety of methods of analysis and design, and the different antenna structures available, the applications covered in this book are made to some of the most basic and practical Antenna Theory Balanis Solution Manual 3rd Edition Happy reading Antenna Theory Analysis And Design 3rd Edition Book everyone. ThisBook have some digital formats such us : paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub,and another formats.

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But this is not a mechanical problem. Why should they throw the gates wide open. Blume stretched out his hand as if to touch it. Odin grabbed it and listened for a moment. Occasionally all groups joined to excoriate Hungarian politics as practiced by the sister parliament in Budapest.

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This study is about the design and production of a conical corrugated horn antenna used to feed reflector antennas in satellite communication direct broadcast satellite-DBS systems. The prototype is realized with new generation 3D printing technology and conductive paint coating method, which makes the antenna lightweight and provides low cost and faster production. According to measurement results, the antenna has return loss almost better than 20 dB, gain value of minimum Antenna is observed to have a gain loss of at most 1. Published Mar 17,

Peter L. System analysis is a powerful tool for researching modern wireless systems. This includes breaking such systems into parts that make them up and studying how these parts work together. Antenna is an integral part of any wireless system, so it should be also represented as a two-port network.

In particular, the total evaluation cost of the low-fidelity model in the SBO process both due to updating and optimization of the surrogate model cannot…. Siakavara and others published Methods to Design In this chapter techniques will be analysed, to design microstrip antennas that P. Bhartia, I. Bahl,, A. General Notes.

Stutzman, Warren L. Antenna theory and design. Instead, the engineering aspects of antenna theory are emphasized. The book covers the G.2 LINE PRINTER RECTANGULAR PLOT SUBROUTINE-PROFIL G.3 EQUALLY SPACED.

Стратмор виновато улыбнулся. - Сегодня утром Дэвид рассказал мне о ваших планах. Он сказал, что ты будешь очень расстроена, если поездку придется отложить. Сьюзан растерялась.

Когда он шел к выходу по главному коридору, путь ему преградил охранник с телефонной трубкой в руке. - Мистер Беккер, подождите минутку. - В чем дело? - Беккер не рассчитывал, что все это займет так много времени, и теперь опаздывал на свой обычный субботний теннисный матч. Часовой пожал плечами. - С вами хочет поговорить начальник шифровалки.

На ВР отчетливо было видно, как уничтожалось окно программной авторизации. Черные всепроникающие линии окружили последний предохранительный щит и начали прорываться к сердцевине банка данных. Алчущие хакеры прорывались со всех уголков мира. Их количество удваивалось каждую минуту. Еще немного, и любой обладатель компьютера - иностранные шпионы, радикалы, террористы - получит доступ в хранилище секретной информации американского правительства.

Ну, давай же, - настаивал Хейл. - Стратмор практически выгнал Чатрукьяна за то, что тот скрупулезно выполняет свои обязанности. Что случилось с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ.

Именно здесь вирус мог бы причинить наибольший ущерб, и именно здесь Джабба проводил большую часть времени. Однако в данный момент у него был перерыв и он поглощал пирог с сыром и перцем в круглосуточной столовой АНБ. Джабба собирался взять третий кусок, когда зазвонил мобильный телефон. - Говорите, - сказал он, быстро проглотив пирог.

Что-то в этом абсурдном имени тревожно сверлило его мозг. Капля Росы. Он слышал приятный голос сеньора Ролдана из агентства сопровождения Белена. У нас только две рыжеволосые… Две рыжеволосые, Иммакулада и Росио… Росио… Росио… Беккер остановился как вкопанный.

А то ты не знаешь. Беккер пожал плечами. Парень зашелся в истерическом хохоте.

О чем. - Квадрат Цезаря, - просияла Сьюзан. - Читается сверху. Танкадо прислал нам письмо. ГЛАВА 122 - Шесть минут! - крикнул техник.

Похож на китайца. Японец, подумал Беккер. - Бедняга.

Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку. Чатрукьяна во что бы то ни стало следовало остановить.

Вот хочу попробовать сделать кое-какую перенастройку да проверить электронную почту, - сказал Хейл. Он смотрел на нее с нескрываемым любопытством. - Что ты сказала. Чем ты занята.

Беккер старался говорить как можно официальнее: - Дело весьма срочное. Этот человек сломал запястье, у него травма головы. Он был принят сегодня утром. Его карточка должна лежать где-то сверху. Беккер еще больше усилил акцент, но так, чтобы собеседница могла понять, что ему нужно, и говорил слегка сбивчиво, подчеркивая свою крайнюю озабоченность.

*И все же Сьюзан понимала, что остановить Хейла могут только его представления о чести и честности.*