File Name: science and properties of materials .zip
A and T, Pantnagar. Carbon fiber is composed of carbon atoms bonded together to form a long chain. The fibers are extremely stiff, strong, and light, and are used in many processes to create excellent building materials.
They are available chemically combined with other elements. Metals are extracted from there ores. The properties of the metal are defined as the special qualities or characteristics of metals that determine their suitability for a specific engineering application.
Although metals have a wide range of properties, the knowledge of the important properties will be helpful in the section of the metals for a specific application. Mechanical properties of metal indicate the nature of its inherent behavior under the action of the external force.
This property of the metals by virtue of which they are able to regain the original shape and size after the removal of the load is called elasticity. It is a very important property, since all cutting tools and metallic objects to maintain their original shape while working and after the removal of the applied force.
For every metal, there will be a maximum limit up to which the force applied will not leave any deformation after it ceases to exist. This is the maximum limit is called the elastic limit [External Link]. If the Force Applied beyond the elastic limit the metal will retain the deformation even after the removal of applied forces. The plasticity may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which a permanent deformation takes place without fracture whenever it is subjected to the action of external forces.
Most of the metals have been found to possess good plasticity. This property is very important in forming shaping an extruding operation. Many metals are shaped in hot conditions, for example, rolling of structural steel shapes and the forging of certain machine parts. The ductility may be defined as the property of metals by virtue of which they can be drawn into wires or elongated before rupture takes place.
This property depends largely upon tenacity and to some extent on hardness. Ductility of metal is higher when cold than hot, hence wires are drawn in cold condition. The brittleness may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which it will fracture suddenly without any appreciable deformation [External Link].
Metals that are less ductile will be brittle. Cast iron is one of the best examples of brittle metals. The hardness may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which resist, abrasion, indentation, and scratch by relatively harder materials.
It is expressed related to the hardness of some standard minerals. Diamond, quartz, corundum, etc. The hardness is an important property for cutting tool materials and the metallic component which have to resist wear while working. Toughness may be defined as the property of the metal by virtue of which we can observe maximum energy before fracture [External link] takes place.
It is measured by the amount of energy that is a unit volume of material has after being stressed up to the point of fracture. Toughness decreases with an increase in temperature. It may be defined as the property by virtue of which the metal will not deform or deflect when the load is applied. Although still is stronger than cast iron, the later is preferred for machine beds and frames because it is more rigid and less likely to deflect with consequent loss of alignment and accuracy. Resilience may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which it stores energy and resists shock and impact loads [External Link].
It is measured by the amount of energy that can be stored per unit volume after stressed up to the elastic limit [External Link]. The material of higher resistance is used for spring. The creep may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which it deforms continuously and slowly under a steady load. Metal generally exhibit creep at Higher temperatures. The characteristic of a metal which enables the flow of electric current through it is called electrical properties.
The most important electrical properties of metals are conductivity, Resistivity and dielectric strength [Both links are External]. The conductivity may be defined as the electrical property of the metal by virtue of which allows the flow of electric current. It is also defined as the reciprocal of resistance. The resistivity may be defined as Electrical property of the metal by virtue of which it impedes or resists the flow of electric current.
It is also defined as the reciprocal of conductivity. It increases linearly with an increase in temperature.
If the operating voltage is increased gradually, at some voltage it loses its insulating property. The minimum voltage that can be applied to the insulating material which results in the destruction of the insulating properties of the material is defined as the dielectric strength.
It is used in the selection of insulating materials. The thermal properties of the metals are the characteristics of the metal which are influenced by the application of heat.
Pure metals show only small changes in thermal conductivity with temperature. The thermal conductivity of Copper and Aluminium increases as the temperature decreases until a maximum reached.
All metals and alloys to a greater or lesser extent, expand when heated and contract when cooled. The amount of expansion and contraction will be proportional to the change in temperature.
The thermal expansion is the characteristic of metals and alloys. This property of the metals will be useful in the application such as shrink-fit and bi-metal alloys. The specific heat of a metal may be defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance through 1 Degree Celsius.
The melting point is defined as the temperature at which it begins to melt when the heat is added to it. Magnetic properties refer to the metal and alloys such as iron, steel and associated alloying elements such as cobalt and Nickel. All other materials are non-magnetic.
Metals and alloys are classified as either hard or soft. Hard magnetic materials retail magnetism after the initial magnetism has been removed. Soft magnetic materials can be easily magnetized or demagnetized and the retain actually no magnetism when the magnetizing force is removed. Magnetic materials are used in a large variety of electrical and electronic components like computers, televisions, video cassettes, and a transducer, etc. Magnetic permeability is defined as a measure that indicates the ease in which magnetism may be developed in the materials.
Hard magnetic materials have a low permeability Where are soft magnetic materials have a high permeability. It is applied to remove previous magnetization or residual magnetism.
The Coercive force must be very small in magnetic materials. When a ferromagnetic material is subjected to a gradually increasing magnetic field, simultaneously there will be a corresponding increase in the intensity of magnetization. When the field strength is decreased to zero. In order to reduce it to zero, a certain amount of magnetic field is applied in the reverse direction. The change in the intensity of magnetization always lags behind the change in the magnetic field strength.
This phenomenon of magnetic materials called hysteresis. Some of the important chemical properties considered in the selection of materials are corrosion, composition and acidity and alkalinity. A considerable amount of energy is spent during the extraction process. As a result of pure metals possess more energy compared to their ores.
As a result, pure metals have a tendency to revert back to their natural state. When pure metals are exposed to the atmosphere of our environment containing liquid and gases, the surface of the metal starts deteriorating due to the chemical reaction. The two simple examples of corrosion resulting in iron and formation of a green film on the surface of copper. The properties of metal depending on the chemical composition of the elements present in the metals and alloys.
Acidity is the Acid characteristics of the metals. Alkaline is the characteristic that neutralizes the acidity. Corrosion of steel is minimized by mentioning the boiler water alkaline. So in this article, I mentioned all the Mechanical properties of Metal , and also describe each one of those, now I want to hear from you, feel free to share your thoughts in the comment section, I will love to see those.
The five properties of metals are: 1. Mechanical properties of metals 2. Chemical properties. It can be classified into: 1. Creep 2. Toughness 3. Hardness 4. Brittleness 5. Elasticity 6. Plasticity 7. Read More…. Melting Point 2. Thermal Conductivity 3. Thermal Expansion 4. Specific Heat 5.
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This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microelectronics, lasers, nanotechnology and several other topics that impinge on modern life.
Sales Contacts. By: Dave Olsen. The mechanical and physical properties of materials are determined by their chemical composition and their internal structure, like grain size or crystal structure.
Article on the properties of matter and the differences between solids, liquids, and gases. Complete the sentences. Write mass or volume. You can do the exercises online or download the worksheet as pdf. Students will learn about properties of liquids and solids. Performance Expectation s : 5-PS Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties. This activity is beneficial to high school students in chemistry, physical science, and Earth science.
A material's property or material property is an intensive property of some material , i. These quantitative properties may be used as a metric by which the benefits of one material versus another can be compared, thereby aiding in materials selection. A property may be a constant or may be a function of one or more independent variables , such as temperature. Materials properties often vary to some degree according to the direction in the material in which they are measured, a condition referred to as anisotropy. Materials properties that relate to different physical phenomena often behave linearly or approximately so in a given operating range [ further explanation needed ]. Modeling them as linear can significantly simplify the differential constitutive equations that the property describes. Some materials are used in relevant equations to predict the attributes of a system a priori.
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INVESTIGATING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS. The science of elasticity seeks to understand the mechanical behavior of structures when.