ethiopian irrigation and water resource code standard volume 10 pdf Monday, March 29, 2021 2:08:50 AM

Ethiopian Irrigation And Water Resource Code Standard Volume 10 Pdf

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Ethiopian Water Resources Management Policy. Water Source and Technologies. Water Sources and Technologies 3.

Understanding and managing new risks on the Nile with the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

Irrigation and Drainage - Sustainable Strategies and Systems. This is compounded by the scarcity and poor management of irrigation water resources. The challenges of water scarcity for agricultural purposes present negative consequences on the general populace, more particularly in the rural areas.

It is in these areas that the majority practise agriculture for their livelihoods with regards to food and incomes [ 2 ].

This has led to a decline in agricultural productivity. Declining agricultural productivity among smallholder farmers in Africa remains a major bottleneck in the development of the continent [ 3 ]. Agricultural production is dominated by rain-fed agriculture and irrigation systems are limited [ 4 ]. To this effect, management of agricultural water particularly in rain-fed systems remains imperative for improved farm level yields because the bulk of the food comes from rain-fed agriculture [ 2 , 3 ].

Yet, evidence of the problems of water management is found throughout history [ 5 ]. Effective management of agricultural water requires continuous backup from policies and institutional frameworks [ 2 , 3 , 6 ].

Scholars have argued that institutions are very important to improve management problems [ 7 , 8 ]. How to incorporate and sustain institutional innovations to ensure efficient use and management of irrigation water under diverse ecological, economic, social, and political constraints is an on-going debate on irrigation water resource development [ 9 ].

Efficient use and management of irrigation water require changes in institutions and new institutions [ 10 ]. In light of the above, a series of institutional arrangements have been presented as panaceas to improve water management: strong government agencies, user organizations, and water markets [ 5 ].

These approaches have conversely failed to achieve the required outcomes basically because of the variability of local situations and the difficulty associated with transferring institutions from one context to another were not considered [ 5 ]. Moreover, research has confirmed that lack of enabling policies and effective institutional frameworks are a major contributor towards poor management and utilisation of agricultural water in Sub-Saharan Africa [ 3 , 6 ].

In light of the above, it is therefore important to understand that addressing the challenges that are associated with water management, there is need to consider the localised rules and norms and the authorities that therefore enforce them. This is over and above implementing appropriate and relevant technologies [ 11 ]. Therefore, there is need for instituting effective localised governance the effective application of community rules. The subsequent section discusses the major water reforms in Zimbabwe.

For close to two decades after independence water resource management continued to be governed by the Water Act. Increased continual privileged access to water by the white large-scale commercial agriculture for commercial interests called for an urgent need to reform the irrigation water sector in Zimbabwe. This was to be augmented by establishing a legal framework that would also guarantee an equal access to water for all Zimbabweans.

Ensuring equitable access to water for rural people for productive uses contributes to the improvement of their livelihoods derived from the use of water. The Water Act of set the parameters of access and use of water as well as the establishment of Catchment and Sub-catchment areas based on hydrological boundaries. This chapter adopts a definition of institutions that encompasses both [ 16 ] and [ 17 ]. The major role of institutions in a society is to reduce uncertainty by establishing structure to human interaction [ 18 ].

The difference between formal and informal institutions is one of degree, not of kind, and in many cases some informal institutions gradually become part of their formal counterparts and some formal institutions take informal forms. Informal institutions are also considered extensions and local-level translations of formal institutions and are not purposively designed but evolve through spontaneous interaction, whereas formal institutions can be purposively designed [ 18 , 19 ].

A survey was conducted by [ 20 ] based on a technical and institutional evaluation of the Geray irrigation scheme in West Gojjam zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. The results indicate that the scheme had been managed by the Water Users Association for four years, despite the fact that it had existed for 27 years. The overall performance of the Water Users Association in terms of managing the schemes was very poor.

Water Users Association had no legal authority to enforce its by-laws. In Harayana, India, [ 21 ] employed descriptive analysis to argue that the fact that the poorer households participated in water projects, this did not however, protect their interests. Community based organisations did not basically provide efficient irrigation services compared to the services provided by private organisations.

Allocation of water, collection of irrigation service fees, and maintenance of irrigation infrastructure by contractors was more effective than by the community. In contrast, an almost similar study by [ 22 ] evaluated the performance of smallholder irrigation systems in Zimbabwe. The results showed that the farmer managed irrigation system performed better consistently than the government managed irrigation system. In Sri Lanka, a study by [ 23 ] revealed that there were many problems in agency managed irrigation.

Poor maintenance of irrigation facilities under public provision is a salient feature in many countries. There was heavy subsidisation of the irrigation management in Sri Lanka which had a poor record of cost recovery. Less than 50 percent of the maintenance costs have been collected from farmers at any time [ 24 ].

Similarly, as observed by [ 25 ], another major deficiency has been the pricing policies in irrigation. Pricing is not related to scarcity or the cost of delivery. Flat rate pricing means the marginal cost is zero which created inefficiency in water use. Several studies have acknowledged the fact that informal local level institutions can make a difference in water management [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 ].

However, the majority of practitioners and policy-makers advocate for the formal state-based water rights in water management issues, while avoiding consideration of the localised informal norms and rules. On the other hand, the researchers who were pro-informal arrangements seem not to put their support on advocating for adoption of the localised best practices, rather, they opt for amalgamation of the new formal and existing informal arrangements.

However, acknowledging the local rules and norms as legitimate by the formal law, the way they are implemented will suppress the dynamics that are fundamental of local arrangements and thus negatively affects local rights, hence poor irrigation water management.

In addition, women tried to solve their irrigation-related problems through informal ways where they had more decision making power. In this study, and as employed by [ 34 ], the Institutional Decomposition Analysis IDA for measuring the effectiveness of water management institutions was decomposed into informal and formal institutions components.

The later was further decomposed into three institutional components; irrigation water law, irrigation water policy, and irrigation water administration. The institutional facets were decomposed further to identify their institutional aspects Figure 1.

This framework provides a basis for a quantitative evaluation of both the institutional and the institution performance linkages. The dependent variable, effectiveness of the relevant formal and informal institution components, were assessed based on a ten-point Likert scale, 1 signifying an extremely non-effective institution and 10 signifying an extremely formal institution.

A value of five implied an undecided or a neutral perception. The following set of equations describes the functional relationships of the formal irrigation institutions. The equation is based on the conceptual framework shown in figure 1. The definitions of the independent variables are listed in Figure 1 and Tables 1 - 4. The variables are grouped into categories of:. Dummy variables. The value of 1 indicates the existence of a given institutional aspect; zero otherwise.

Scale variables. A numerical value of 0 is assigned for each category. A value of zero indicates the worst situation and 10 indicates an ideal situation. The intermediate values taken by the scale variables can be interpreted as the extent the actual situation deviates from either the worst or the ideal situation. When these equations are estimated using Ordinary Least Squares OLS , the sign and size of their coefficients provide insights into the relative role that various institutional aspects play in influencing the performance of the formal irrigation water institutions.

Some of these policies to be considered include: fiscal policies, economic policies, investment policies, etc. The research study was carried-out in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is divided into five broad Natural Regions NR in which the dominant natural factor conditioning agricultural production is climate; mainly rainfall.

From each stratum, random sampling was done to select the target irrigation schemes For a scheme to be selected for the study, it should have been functional for at least the past 5 years and at the time of the interview.

The descriptive results are summarized in Tables 6 — 9. Descriptive statistics: perceptional -based legal, institutional, and performance variables. Descriptive statistics: perceptional-based policy institutional and performance variables.

During the colonial history of Zimbabwe, black indigenous farmers were disadvantaged because they had not applied for water rights [ 36 ] and when they applied for water rights, most of the water was committed to rights held by white farmers, which were issued in perpetuity and could not be revoked.

Smallholder farmers were also disenfranchised because the legal systems introduced in the colonial and post-colonial states failed to acknowledge traditional water management practices [ 37 ]. In addition, [ 38 ] also report that the water rights of the indigenous population which predated the settler claims, were disregarded, thus leaving most farmers without water rights.

Lack of clearly defined and well-enforced property rights significantly increase risks [ 39 ]. Unclear rights increase risks of farmers mismanaging water resources because they do not have a sense of ownership. A mean value of 0. Human actors have bounded rationality Simon, rather than perfect knowledge.

Human actors lack complete knowledge to assess their decision alternatives due to their cognitive limitations, time and information constraints [ 40 , 41 ]. However, formal courts tend to nullify the rulings of informal arbitration [ 41 ].

This may imply perpetuation of conflict, eventually leading to poor irrigation water management. This result can imply a lack of enforcement of the Water Act, despite the Act being regarded as technically sound, with a solid base for sustainable and efficient utilisation of water resources. Vital sections of the Act have not been fully enforced; hence, its founding principles are not supported.

For example, the Water Fund has collected insufficient revenue to support statutory functions. In the theory of economics of institutions and economic growth, [ 42 ] argued that institutions need continual adaptation in the face of changing environment of technology to promote economic growth, particularly in Zimbabwe where there has been an emergence of new irrigation farmers as a result of the land reform programmes.

This can be explained by the fact that water reforms in Zimbabwe introduced radical changes regarding the participation and representation of users in the management of water. The Water Act provided a legal basis for the participation of previously excluded water users, namely communal, resettlement and small-scale commercial farmers. This inclusiveness has encouraged local level participation in water management at sub-catchment council levels.

Generally, the purpose of paying for water use is to ensure sustainability of services, water conservation, and mitigation of damages [ 44 ]. Even the creation of the Water Fund embedded in the Water Act with the objectives of collecting levies, fees, government contributions and other support towards water service provision did not help as financial inflows have been minimal [ 45 ].

Similarly, new users are reluctant to pay for water use as water rights had not been paid previously. There is not a culture of paying for commercial use of water by water users [ 43 ]. Moreover, many farmers stopped paying for irrigation water after their farms were invaded during the FTLRP [ 44 ]. In response, many governments have moved away from imposing the full costs upon water users of irrigation for political reasons because farmers resist charges [ 45 ].

This could emanate from political interference in pricing of water in Zimbabwe where politicians, in a bid to retain popularity, aim to keep the price of water as low as possible [ 43 ]. Even if users pay for irrigation water, a challenge lies on ensuring that at least part of the water revenue is re-invested in water management so as to improve and make the irrigation water policy an effective tool in irrigation water management [ 43 ].

Nature and Role of Water Institutions — Implications to Irrigation Water Management in Zimbabwe

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. The journal publishes papers of international significance relating to the science , economics , and policy of agricultural water management. In all cases, manuscripts must address implications and provide insight regarding agricultural water management. Additional topics of interest include interactions between agricultural water management and the environment flooding, soil erosion, nutrient loss and depletion, non-point source pollution, water quality, desertification, and the potential implications of global climate change for agricultural water management , and the institutional and regulatory aspects of agricultural water management water pricing, allocation and competition.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. There is not yet agreement on how these dams will operate to manage scarce water resources.

Irrigation and Drainage - Sustainable Strategies and Systems. This is compounded by the scarcity and poor management of irrigation water resources. The challenges of water scarcity for agricultural purposes present negative consequences on the general populace, more particularly in the rural areas. It is in these areas that the majority practise agriculture for their livelihoods with regards to food and incomes [ 2 ]. This has led to a decline in agricultural productivity. Declining agricultural productivity among smallholder farmers in Africa remains a major bottleneck in the development of the continent [ 3 ]. Agricultural production is dominated by rain-fed agriculture and irrigation systems are limited [ 4 ].

Water Supply Design Excel

Our website uses Javascript for richer browsing experience. Unfortunately looks like your browser either doesn't support Javascript or Javascript is disabled. Please enable Javascript to continue browsing. Several studies have simulated the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam filling and operation but the optimum operation policy of the dam has not been fully investigated. This study presents a nonlinear optimization model for the operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam using natural historical inflow time series data — with an objective function that maximizes firm energy.

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Agricultural policies, agricultural production and rural households’ welfare in Ethiopia

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Skip to main content. Search form Search. Water analysis project pdf. The reasons water systems also may need to provide water for special services that include street cleaning, the selling of water to contractors for erecting buildings, parks and recreation, and miscellaneous uses. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.


Irrigation in Sudan, Ministry of Water resources of Ethiopia, and Hydraulic Research In addition to standard SWAT and SWAT-WB, a number of models such as under compilation to be published in four chapters of a Nile Book in Codes: IWSM is for Integrated Watershed Management; LAUP is for Land Administration.


Ethiopian water resources management policy

Tibebe B. Tigabu, Paul D. Hydrology Research 1 December ; 51 6 : — The Ethiopian government has selected Lake Tana basin as a development corridor due to its water resources potential.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. There is not yet agreement on how these dams will operate to manage scarce water resources.

Agricultural Water Management

Metrics details. The analysis is based on social accounting matrix SAM of Oromia region. This study develops two simulations based on economic assumptions and tests their effects on agricultural production, and social welfare. The first set of experiment focuses on the irrigation policies that change the factor intensities in the production of agricultural commodities, and the second one focuses on the precision agriculture that raises agricultural productivity in the use of technologies.

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Agricultural Water Management

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and future water resources development in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Map showing the Lake Tana and Beles River catchments and future irrigation and Flow (m3s-1). Volume (Mm3). Note: MAR – Mean Annual Runoff; SD – Standard deviation; CV – coefficient of.

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