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History Of Andaman And Nicobar Islands Pdf

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The history of Andaman is still a mystery to many. No one actually knows when and how the first inhabitants came to the island.

The purpose of this paper is to present the Andaman and Nicobar Islands ANI as a case to delineate contextual and often paradoxical challenges in implementing centrally sponsored schemes in a small island economy. However, using examples of two public health and nutrition schemes, the paper argues that unless ANI's development indicators are compared over few years, public policy may fail to identity its development challenges and continue its rhetoric while in reality, health outcomes may be regressing. The paper used case study research design involving mixed method approach.

Historical Background of Andaman

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands , a union territory of India , are a group of objects, with of them islands, of which 38 are inhabited at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.

The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west. The territory's capital is the city of Port Blair. The territory is divided into three districts: the Nicobar District with Car Nicobar as its capital, the South Andaman district with Port Blair as its capital and the North and Middle Andaman district with Mayabunder as its capital. The islands host the Andaman and Nicobar Command , the only tri-service geographical command of the Indian Armed Forces.

The Andaman Islands are also home to the Sentinelese people , an uncontacted tribe. The Sentinelese might be the only people currently known to not have reached further than a Paleolithic level of technology , [8] however, this is disputed, as evidence of metalwork was found on their island.

The earliest archaeological evidence documents some 2, years. However, genetic and cultural studies suggest that the indigenous Andamanese people may have been isolated from other populations during the Middle Paleolithic , which ended 30, years ago. The Nicobar Islands appear to have been populated by people of various backgrounds.

By the time of European contact, the indigenous inhabitants had coalesced into the Nicobarese people , speaking a Austroasiatic language, and the Shompen , whose language is of uncertain affiliation. Neither language is related to Andamanese. European traveller Marco Polo 12th—13th century also referred to this island as 'Necuverann' and a corrupted form of the Tamil name Nakkavaram would have led to the modern name Nicobar during the British colonial period.

The history of organised European colonisation on the islands began when settlers from the Danish East India Company arrived in the Nicobar Islands on 12 December During — they were administrated from Tranquebar in continental Danish India. From 1 June to , Austria mistakenly assumed that Denmark had abandoned its claims to the Nicobar Islands and attempted to establish a colony on them, [12] renaming them Theresia Islands.

In the British set up a naval base and penal colony on Chatham Island next to Great Andaman, where now lies the town of Port Blair. Two years later the colony was moved to Port Cornwallis on Great Andaman, but it was abandoned in due to disease. Denmark 's presence in the territory ended formally on 16 October when it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands to Britain, [12] which made them part of British India in In the British again established a colony at Port Blair, which proved to be more permanent.

The primary purpose was to set up a penal colony for criminal convicts from the Indian subcontinent. The colony came to include the infamous Cellular Jail. In the Andaman and Nicobar islands were united under a single chief commissioner at Port Blair. Iqbal, Lt. On 2 October , Col. Loganathan handed over the charge to Maj. Alvi and left Port Blair, never to return. During the independence of both India and Burma , the departing British announced their intention to resettle all Anglo-Indians and Anglo-Burmese on these islands to form their own nation, although this never materialised.

It became part of India in and was declared as a union territory of the nation in India has been developing defence facilities on the islands since the s. The islands now have a key position in India's strategic role in the Bay of Bengal and the Malacca Strait. More than 2, people lost their lives, 4, children were orphaned or suffered the loss of one parent, and at least 40, people were rendered homeless.

More than 46, people were injured. The lighthouse at Indira Point was damaged but has been repaired since. A significant portion of the union territory was submerged and subsequently lost to sea. While the locals and tourists on the islands suffered the greatest casualties from the tsunami, most of the aboriginal people survived on account of oral traditions passed down over generations that warned them to evacuate from the large waves that follow earthquakes.

Of these 38 are permanently inhabited. It is an active volcano and had last erupted in It also has a mud volcano situated in Baratang Island. These mud volcanoes have erupted sporadically, with recent eruptions in believed to have been associated with the Indian Ocean earthquake.

The previous major eruption recorded was on 18 February The locals call this mud volcano Jalki. There are other volcanoes in the area. This island's beaches, mangrove creeks, limestone caves, and mud volcanoes are some of the physical features. The PM made this announcement during a speech at the Netaji Stadium, marking the 75th anniversary of the hoisting of the Indian flag by Bose there. The islands are about Before the British established a colony on the Andaman, the Sisters were visited occasionally by the Onge people of Little Andaman Island for fishing.

The islands may have been a waystation on the way to their temporary settlement of Rutland Island between and The islands have been designated as a wildlife refuge since , with an area of 0. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have a tropical rainforest canopy, made of a mixed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmar, Malaysian and endemic floral strains.

So far, about 2, varieties of plants have been recorded, out of which are endemic and 1, do not occur in mainland India. The South Andaman forests have a profuse growth of epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns, and orchids. The Middle Andamans harbours mostly moist deciduous forests.

North Andamans is characterised by the wet evergreen type, with plenty of woody climbers. The North Nicobar Islands including Car Nicobar and Battimalv are marked by the complete absence of evergreen forests, while such forests form the dominant vegetation in the central and southern islands of the Nicobar group.

Grasslands occur only in the Nicobars, and while deciduous forests are common in the Andamans, they are almost absent in the Nicobars. The present forest coverage is claimed to be This tropical rain forest, despite its isolation from adjacent landmasses, is surprisingly rich with a diversity of animal life.

About 50 varieties of forest mammals are found to occur in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Some are endemic, including the Andaman wild boar. Rodents are the largest group with 26 species, followed by 14 species of bat. Among the larger mammals there are two endemic [ citation needed ] varieties of wild boar, Sus scrofa andamanensis from Andaman and Sus scrofa nicobaricus from Nicobar, which are protected by the Wildlife Protection Act Sch I.

Saltwater crocodile is also found in abundance. The State Animal of Andaman is the dugong , also known as the sea cow, which can be found in Little Andaman. Around there was an attempt to introduce the leopard , which was unsuccessful because of unsuitable habitat. These were ill-considered moves as exotic introductions can cause havoc to island flora and fauna. Elephants also can be found in forested or mountainous areas of the islands, they were brought over from the mainland to help with timber extraction in About species of birds are found in the territory; 14 of them are endemic, the majority to the Nicobar island group.

The islands' many caves are nesting grounds for the edible-nest swiftlet, whose nests are prized in China for bird's nest soup. The territory is home to about species of butterflies and moths.

Ten species are endemic to these Islands. Mount Harriet National Park is one of the richest areas of butterfly and moth diversity on these islands.

The islands are well known for prized shellfish , especially from the genera Turbo , Trochus , Murex and Nautilus. Earliest recorded commercial exploitation began during Many cottage industries produce a range of decorative shell items.

Giant clams , green mussels and oysters support edible shellfishery. The shells of scallops , clams , and cockle are burnt in kilns to produce edible lime. There are 96 wildlife sanctuaries, nine national parks and one biosphere reserve in these islands. As of [update] Census of India , the population of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands was ,, of which , The sex ratio was females per 1, males.

The original population of the islands — the Great Andamanese, the Onge, the Jarawa and the Sentinelese, were estimated to be around 5, years ago. The population of islands increased massively due to the colonisation policy of Govt of India into islands under Jawaharlal Nehru in the late s, that brought settlers from other parts of the country.

The areas and populations at the and Censuses of the three districts [29] are:. There remain approximately — indigenous Andamanese in the Andaman islands, the Jarawa and Sentinelese in particular maintaining steadfast independence and refusing most attempts at contact. In the Nicobar Islands, the indigenous people are the Nicobarese , or Nicobari , living throughout many of the islands, and the Shompen , restricted to the hinterland of Great Nicobar.

More than 2, people belonging to the Karen tribe live in the Mayabunder tehsil of North Andaman district, almost all of whom are Christians. Bengali is the most spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Religion in Andaman and Nicobar [31]. The majority of people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are Hindus There is a significant Muslim 8. In , the British had placed the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in one administrative territory headed by a Chief Commissioner as its judicial administrator.

On 1 August , the Nicobar islands were hived off into another revenue district with district headquarters at Car Nicobar under a Deputy Commissioner. In , the post of Lieutenant Governor was created who replaced the Chief Commissioner as the head of administration. Subsequently, a "Pradesh council" with Councillors as representatives of the people was constituted to advise the Lieutenant Governor. Each district is further divided into sub-divisions and taluks :.

A total of 48, hectares , acres of land is used for agriculture purposes. Paddy , the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of islands, whereas coconut and arecanut are the cash crops of Nicobar group of islands. Field crops, namely, pulses , oilseeds and vegetables are grown, followed by paddy during Rabi season.

Different kinds of fruits such as mango , sapota , orange , banana , papaya , pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by farmers.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The history of the Andaman and Nicobar Starts from the Ramayana period. In the Ramayana period it was called as Handuman, As time passes away this place was renamed. In the 1st Century this place was called as Agadaemon Angademan according to Ptolemy. Travellers from different parts of the world visited this place. In the 17th century Lieutenant Archibald Blair of the Royal Indian Navy founded a naval base on a small island adjoining south Andaman merely by clearing forests, setting up cottages, and planting kitchen gardens and orchards.

History of andaman and nicobar islands pdf. Historical facts about the Andaman Islands that everyone should know andaman's history are as fascinating as the.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

These specially designed Andaman and Nicobar Island general knowledge questions and answers are very useful for national level examination. You can read and download the latest Andaman and Nicobar Island GK Questions and answers asked in popular state-level service commissions of Andaman and Nicobar Island. In Andaman and Nicobar ruled different empires such as the Chola empire, the British empire. It is part of India since and was declared as a union territory of the nation in It has a coastline of km, Andaman and Nicobar Islands is the smallest state of India with the total population over 14,58,

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman and Nicobar have rich history dating back since BC. These Islands are one of the famous Islands in the world and they have the best beaches in India. This must visit destination is a good place for vacationing but let us learn a thing or two about this paradise. The indigenous population called Andamanese and Nicobarese inhabit these Islands. But with the coming of Indian Independence in the year , these islands Andaman and Nicobar were united with the Indian mainstream. Today, you will find, its past relics, artefacts and ruins around the Island, in the museum of Cellular Jail in Andaman. For ages, the Andamans have been nicknamed as Kala Paani because of its cellular Jail.

Jet Ski is one of the most adventurous water sports activity. Most of the tourist use to have enjoyed this water sport. Do not ignore the advice and try not to get carried away by the high speed and excitement.

India is a country known for its culture, heritage, history and natural resources. All the states and union territories have a good number of locations.

Relief and drainage

Между 0 и 1 000 000 более 70 000 вариантов. Все зависит оттого, что выбрал Танкадо. Чем больше это число, тем труднее его найти. - Оно будет громадным, - застонал Джабба.  - Ясно, что это будет число-монстр.

Наконец она поняла, что каждая цифра обозначала букву с соответствующим порядковым номером. Она старательно расшифровывала текст, завороженная тем, как на первый взгляд произвольный набор цифр превращался в красивые стихи. В тот момент она поняла, что нашла свою любовь - шифры и криптография отныне станут делом ее жизни. Почти через двадцать лет, получив степень магистра математики в Университете Джонса Хопкинса и окончив аспирантуру по теории чисел со стипендией Массачусетского технологического института, она представила докторскую диссертацию- Криптографические методы, протоколы и алгоритмы ручного шифрования. По-видимому, ее работу прочел не только научный руководитель, потому что вскоре последовал телефонный звонок, а затем по почте ей доставили авиационный билет от АНБ. Все, кто имел отношение к криптографии, знали, что о АНБ собраны лучшие криптографические умы нашей планеты.

На поиски вируса нужно время, которого нет ни у нее, ни у коммандера. Но, вглядываясь в строки программы и думая, какую ошибку она могла допустить, Сьюзан чувствовала, что тут что-то не. Она запускала Следопыта месяц назад, и никаких проблем не возникло. Могли сбой произойти внезапно, сам по. Размышляя об этом, Сьюзан вдруг вспомнила фразу, сказанную Стратмором: Я попытался запустить Следопыта самостоятельно, но информация, которую он выдал, оказалась бессмысленной.

Indigenous Forest Management In the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

Над ними, опираясь на перила площадки перед своим кабинетом, стоял Стратмор. Какое-то время в здании слышался только неровный гул расположенных далеко внизу генераторов. Сьюзан отчаянно пыталась встретиться взглядом со Стратмором. Коммандер.

History of Andaman

 - Я мог бы предложить вам более привлекательную идею.  - Ролдан был человек осторожный, а визит в полицию мог превратить его клиентов в бывших клиентов.  - Подумайте, - предложил .

Затем, с еще мокрыми волосами, угощал поверженного соперника орешками и соком. Как у всех молодых профессоров, университетское жалованье Дэвида было довольно скромным. Время от времени, когда надо было продлить членство в теннисном клубе или перетянуть старую фирменную ракетку, он подрабатывал переводами для правительственных учреждений в Вашингтоне и его окрестностях. В связи с одной из таких работ он и познакомился со Сьюзан. В то прохладное осеннее утро у него был перерыв в занятиях, и после ежедневной утренней пробежки он вернулся в свою трехкомнатную университетскую квартиру.

 АНБ, - пошутил приятель, - означает Агентство, которого Никогда не Было. Со смешанным чувством тревоги и любопытства Беккер принял приглашение загадочного агентства. Он проехал тридцать семь миль до их штаб-квартиры, раскинувшейся на участке площадью тридцать шесть акров среди лесистых холмов Форт-Мида в штате Мэриленд. После бесчисленных проверок на контрольно-пропускных пунктах он получил шестичасовой гостевой пропуск с голографическим текстом и был препровожден в роскошное помещение, где ему, как было сказано, предстояло вслепую оказать помощь Отделению криптографии - элитарной группе талантливых математиков, именуемых дешифровщиками. В течение первого часа они, казалось, даже не замечали его присутствия.

Three Books on the Andaman & Nicobar Islands

 Мне много чего нужно, мистер Беккер, но неприятности точно не нужны. Кроме того, тот старик вроде бы обо всем позаботился. - Канадец.

Год назад высокопоставленный сотрудник аппарата Белого дома начал получать электронные письма с угрозами, отправляемые с некоего анонимного адреса. АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя. Хотя агентство имело возможность потребовать от переадресующей компании открыть ему имя этого клиента, оно решило прибегнуть к более изощренному методу - следящему устройству. Фактически Сьюзан создала программу-маяк направленного действия, замаскированный под элемент электронной почты.


Zurie D. 01.04.2021 at 21:42

Andaman and Nicobar Islands , union territory, India , consisting of two groups of islands at the southeastern edge of the Bay of Bengal.

Raison S. 04.04.2021 at 15:33

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands , a union territory of India , are a group of objects, with of them islands, of which 38 are inhabited at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.