File Name: beyond good and evil walter kaufmann .zip
While wholly enamored of the aristocratic, Hellenistic past of literary invention, the often bilious German philosopher nonetheless had no illusions about the nature of power, which does as it will and is not held in check by what we take for common values. Nietzsche may have had nothing but contempt for liberal, bourgeois society, but he did not seek to replace it with egalitarian socialism or anything of the kind. It is this sometimes jarring contrast between his seemingly rightist politics and his unsystematic dismantling of the ideological mechanisms by which state power justifies itself that make Nietzsche such a confusing philosopher, one so easily misinterpreted and misread.
Among the critics of the Enlightenment faith in science, Friedrich Nietzsche stands out as among the most profound. Today, scientific advances such as modern medicine have improved the quality of life for millions of people, seemingly vindicating the early modern apostles of science. Yet, for all of the tangible benefits that scientific progress has produced, some astute commentators noted that the new authority of science poses urgent challenges for both philosophy and human excellence.
In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche argues that the enthronement of science has created a new class of elites known as the scholars. The scholars are not limited to a single academic field, such as mathematics or the natural sciences. Nietzsche suggests that this scholarly desire for objectivity imperils real philosophy, which should seek above all to create new value systems.
The scholars, devoted to the pursuit of objective truth under the scientific method, deny that the creation of values is even possible. The heart of the conflict between the scholars and the philosophers of the future is political. Nietzsche implies that there is a kinship between the Christians, the democrats, and the scholars.
As Nietzsche explained in The Gay Science :. Nietzsche here observes that, notwithstanding their professed anti-Christianity, the scholarly confidence in science is itself only a secularized religious longing.
As much as the Christians and Platonists, the scholars assume that objective truth is knowable, valuable, and good. For Nietzsche, however, this assumption is fundamentally erroneous.
It fails to recognize that the objective pursuit of truth is impossible, not only in the realm of moral philosophy, but also in the natural sciences. The scholars utilize their authority to promote the sordid ideals of democracy and egalitarianism. When the scholars emancipated themselves from the authority of the theologians and the philosophers, they were merely participating in the democratic revolt against authority more generally.
To sustain and promote the democratic order, the scholars redefined philosophy. Because the scientific method cannot answer deep questions about human life, the scholars simply ignore these questions. To make philosophy more empirical and utilitarian, scholars have narrowed its focus and transformed it into a specialized profession.
One does not become a philosopher, but instead becomes an epistemologist, a metaphysician, a sociologist, a political scientist, or an economist. To Nietzsche, specialization represents a principal method by which democratic scholars can revolt against the potential for human excellence. Not only do the scholars deplore the holistic character of real philosophy, but they also fear that its pursuit would make them unpopular with the democratic masses.
Real philosophers, Nietzsche insists, would not be popular and would not care to be. Scholars, in contrast, not only have no interest in overturning common assumptions, but they pander to them and give them philosophical legitimacy.
Rather than offer a path forward towards creative philosophical systems and human excellence, the scholars have simply sustained the most mediocre prevailing assumptions. He seeks out false honors that appeal to his vanity. The scholars wield the dogma of skepticism to ensconce human mediocrity. Skepticism, ostensibly a philosophy that rejects dogmatic truth claims, has itself become an unquestionable dogma among scholars. By denying the possibility of value judgments, skepticism suggests that all moralities are fundamentally equal in worth.
Skepticism thus provides scholars with another excuse to abandon the creation of values. If all moral values are equal, then it is impossible to create superior ones.
Adhering to a philosophy of unbelief, skeptical scholars are timid people who refuse to take an affirmative stand for anything. Yes and No—that goes against his morality. Guided by a misplaced faith in objectivity and science, the scholars have proven unable to create life-affirming value systems. Nietzsche recognizes the paradox that, for a philosopher of the future to arise, he will necessarily have to make use of his democratic, mediocre, and egalitarian context.
Nietzsche, noting that some of the philosophers of the future may come out of a democratic and scholarly background, explains the matter thusly:. But all these are merely preconditions of his task: this task itself demands something different—it demands that he create values. Thus, to the philosopher of the future, a sordid background should be seen as an opportunity to utilize to demonstrate his greatness, not as a baleful disadvantage.
In some ways, it may be advantageous for the philosopher to meet with the skeptics, critics, dogmatists, historians, and other democratic peoples. While it is possible for philosophers of the future to arise in democracies, Nietzsche insists that this will happen only very rarely. This is because philosophy cannot simply be taught, as it could if man were a rational animal.
Democracies have amalgamated the different classes and races in such a way that genetic weakness is the prevailing human type. The crucial division between the philosophers of the future and scholars is that they represent divergent political impulses. The scholars are democratic, whereas the philosophers of the future are aristocratic.
By pursuing objective truth, the scholars persist in the Christian and classical delusion that human nature is reasonable rather than impassioned and creative. Scholars seized the mantle of the scientific method because it allowed them to enthrone themselves as a new authority structure.
They did not use their new authority to promote human excellence, but instead entrenched democratic mediocrity in every way possible. Ultimately, the supposed objectivity and skepticism of the scholars were merely intellectual justifications for democracy.
Democratic ideals, Nietzsche believes, must be overthrown by the philosopher of the future. This philosopher will recognize that objectivity is a myth and that his own personal perspective should be utilized to create new value systems. Rather than promote weak and timid value systems, the philosopher will construct new ones that favor life and strength.
By creating new tables of values, the philosopher of the future asserts his will to power and liberates humanity from the vestiges of reason that the scholars were unwilling to abandon. The creation of these new philosophers will not, however, be easy. In the short-term, philosophers will need to work within the confines of their mediocre, democratic society to improve the world.
In the long term, they will need to institute illiberal changes, such as selective breeding, that cultivate the genetic conditions necessary for the philosophers of the future to arise. By giving man meaning where no meaning exists by nature, the philosopher of the future vindicates the highest ambitions of aristocratic human excellence and serves as an ultimate repudiation of democratic mediocrity.
Republished with gracious permission from VoegelinView November The Imaginative Conservative applies the principle of appreciation to the discussion of culture and politics—we approach dialogue with magnanimity rather than with mere civility. Will you help us remain a refreshing oasis in the increasingly contentious arena of modern discourse? Please consider donating now. Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. New York: Macmillan Company, Discourse on Method and Meditations.
Translated by Elizabeth S. Haldane and G. New York: Dover, Nietzsche, Friedrich. Translated by Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, New York: Penguin Books, Elizabeth S. All comments are moderated and must be civil, concise, and constructive to the conversation. Comments that are critical of an essay may be approved, but comments containing ad hominem criticism of the author will not be published.
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Previous Next. The Democratic Mediocrity of the Scholars Nietzsche implies that there is a kinship between the Christians, the democrats, and the scholars. Conclusion The crucial division between the philosophers of the future and scholars is that they represent divergent political impulses. References: Bacon, Francis. Leave a Comment.
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of Beyond Good and Evil appeared on the German book market. Among previous translations of the work, thosc by Walter Kaufmann ().
Look Inside. Beyond Good and Evil is one of the most remarkable and influential books of the nineteenth century. This translation by Walter Kaufmann has become the standard one, for accuracy and fidelity to the eccentricities and grace of the style of the original.
It was first published in In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of lacking critical sense and blindly accepting dogmatic premises in their consideration of morality. Specifically, he accuses them of founding grand metaphysical systems upon the faith that the good man is the opposite of the evil man, rather than just a different expression of the same basic impulses that find more direct expression in the evil man.
Look Inside. Beyond Good and Evil is one of the most remarkable and influential books of the nineteenth century. This translation by Walter Kaufmann has become the standard one, for accuracy and fidelity to the eccentricities and grace of the style of the original. The translation is based on the only edition Nietzsche himself published, and all variant reading in later editions. This volume offers an inclusive index of subjects and persons, as well as a running footnote commentary on the text.
Я уверена, что они смогут сказать. Нуматака тоже был уверен, что компания это сделает.
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