File Name: pitman shorthand grammalogues and contractions .zip
Indo- pak relation: - 80 wpm, 10 minutes test 1.
It was, in fact, impossible to resist the argument that it is vastly more convenient to use one book of reference than to have to use two, and accordingly the task of making the dictionary complete and self-contained was attempted, and has, it is hoped, been accompUshed to the edification of those who may refer to it.
In order to keep the volume within reasonable hmits, a great degree of economy had to be practised. Words have a tendency, the result of their handling sometimes by ordinary folk and sometimes by writers, to pass from their primary and obvious meanings to metaphorical senses.
Only in a large and comprehensive dictionary would it be possible to follow every word into a variety of usages, and here this has been done sparingly; for, given one or two of its meanings, anyone meeting a word in a connection different from its natural setting would at once perceive that metaphor had been at work upon it, and be able to see how it had acquired this further meaning. It is very tempting klso to trace words to their earliest discoverable source, but again that process would result in extending the bulk as well as the scope of the present book.
Its purpose is to furnish the writer of shorthand with a ready means of finding the common and regular signification of each word the shorthand outline of which he requires to learn. What such a student needs for his purpose is the immediate and obvious rather than the recondite. Into the making of an English Dictionary Dr. Johnson introduced a delightful feature, the illustration of the meanings and usages of words by means of literary passages in which they occur.
In a particular context, and especially when placed there by one of the makers of literature, a word is invested with a new life and power, and it needs the quotation for the lexicographer adequately to convey the acquired meaning. Subject, therefore, to these restrictions, the work is submitted to the pubUc of shorthand writers and students, in the hope and with the intention that it may be a real help to them. Every writer of the system is aware that the use of the many regularized abbreviating devices which results in brief and facile outUnes being obtained for the.
Hence the importance and utility of the work as a book of reference for teachers, students, and practitioners. A considerable number of words have been added, including some new words while, on the other hand, many words now obsolete have been excluded. Every effort has been made to render the present edition of the Dictionary reliable and consistent in regard to pronunciation and the selection of the shorthand forms.
There will, no doubt, be differences of opinion with regard to the outlines for certain words, since a form which is the most convenient to one writer is not invariably so to another writer. It is strongly recommended, however, that the closest possible adherence to Dictionary outlines be observed, since they have been decided upon as the result of experience and the most careful thought.
No outline, therefore, should be rejected in favour of another until an attempt has been made to ascertain whether there is not some special reason for its adoption. It is obvious that uniformity of outline is especially helpful in the case of writers who have to read or transcribe each other's notes. Changes as regards Pronunciation. Murray, LL. A long vowel tends to become short when it is unaccented, and in some words, such as proclaim, biograph, the vowels o and u are In others, however, e.
Here again, the long vowel tends to become short when it is d. Preference is also given in the New English Dictionary to the pronunciation in in some further adjectives ending in -ine which were previously vocalized with i, e. In most adjectives ending in -He, however, preference is given to t, although in these also both pronunciations are generally given.
In such words as ranch, French, inch, punch, with regard to which authorities differ, ch, which is believed to represent the more usual pronunciation, is retained. The pronunciation of French and other foreign words hcis been shown with greater precision than hitherto. SimplUications as regards Vocalization which do not involve the Alteration of any Rule in the Text-books. The diphthong it 1 Diphthong u when occurring between two strokes is now treated in the same it is always written before way as a third-place vowel i.
Outlines containing stroke ng, when used of the suffix -ing are now vocalized in the the vowel is a third-place vowel or otherwise. The small circle used to represent a vowel occurring between the two consonants expressed by a hooked form of the pr, pi series is. The following classes of words are mentioned for the purpose of furnishing an explanation of some of the changes referred to, and at the same time showing the general practice which has been followed in.
All words feminines ending in -ess 3 Words ending in -ess. Derivatives from words with outlines containing stroke See also paragraph 70 a of the Instructor and No. Derivatives formed primitive thus,.
While words ending in -ous preceded by a diphthong are written s in accordance with paragraph 70 d of the Instructor, their derivatives ending in -uously, -uousness and -uosity are generally with stroke written with the circle ;.
Words formed unr-, enr-, unl-, enl-. Stroke n is generally retained in derivatives from words with the stroke, other than those ending in -ic or -cy ;. Derivatives and compounds from grammalogues are written unvocalized in the outline whenever a form is. Derivatives and compounds from contracted words are written by retaining the original contraction in the outline whenever a convenient and legible form is.
The derivation of words must be regarded as one of a number of considerations affecting the choice of outlines, but wliile in the outlines of many derivatives the outline of the primitive word, or some particular feature of it, is retained, there are, on the other hand, many cases in which derivatives are written in accordance with the ordinary rules and principles of the system, without regard to derivation e. A number of classes of compound words have already been dealt with in connection with the various principles involved.
With regard to cases in which the outlines of the primary words will not join con veniently, they are written disjoined if a better outline is not obtainable by altering one or both of them so as to admit of joining.
Three straight strokes that would not make an angle are not hence picture-gallery. Outlines and Vowels. Outlines, as a rule, are not varied in order to permit of a vowelsign being placed exactly in its proper place ;. In a few cases, however, in which an outline that can be more accurately vocalized is a better one from a practical point of view, it is.
In a great majority of cases the application of the ordinary rules of the system affords adequate means of distinction, but in a comparatively few of is.
Again, in a few the. Century Cyclopedia of Proper Names, the Standard Dictionary and other sources and a number of peculiarly pronounced and other names have been added. It should be remembered that proper names have frequently more than one accepted pronunciation. In some instances there is a local and also an " outside " pronunciation, and in the case of foreign names some have an anglicized pronunciation the ;.
Doubtful cases include names of more than two syllables ending in -ingkam, such as Birmingham, Nottingham, but in these cases the aspirate is inserted. There are also a number of names ending in -sham or -tham in which custom has sanctioned the sound of sh and n6 C-. Derivative Words, x, xii, xiii, XV, xvi, xvii, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxxiii. Carruthers, xxxix catarrhal, xxv catboat, xxviii Catford, xxxvii cavalcade, xxvii cayenne, xxii ceaseless, xxxiv cellarer, xxvi. Bentham, xxxviii Bethel, xxi bias, xvii biased, xvii biblicist, xvii biliousness, xxv Billingthurst, xxxix.
Clacton-on-Sea, xxxix clandestine, xxxiii clandestinely, xxxiii Clapham, xxxviii cleansing, xxxi client, xxii Clifton, xxxvii clockwork, xxxiv club-house, xxiv coach-house, xxiv. Evesham, xxxviii examine, x excentric, xxix exchanger, xv excitatory, xxvi excusable, xviii exercise, xviii exist, X, xxxiv existence, xxxiv exorcism, xviii exorcize, xviii. Edinburgh, xxxix educational, xi efiacement, xxxii effervesce, xx egotistical, xxv elastic, xvii embark, ix embitter, xxxiii emphasize, xviii empiricist, xvii.
Genoese, xvii genuine, xxii geometry, xviii gesticulate, xxx giant, xxii giantess, xvi gilder, xxix '. Hesse, xiii heterodox, xxiv heterogamus, xxiv heterogeneous, xxiv heterology, xxiv heteromorphous, xxiv Heywood, xxxviii, xxxix.
London, x, xxxix lonesome, xxiii losing, xxxi luckier, xxiv lukewarm, xxvi, xxxvi Lyndhurst, xxxviii. Jedburgh, xxxix Jennings, xxxix jointed, xxii jolly-boat, xxviii joyously, xvii joyousness, xvii Judaism, xvii.
Nailsworth, xxxviii naked, xxvii napiform, xxx narcissus, xviii Nashville, xxxviii nationality, xxxii. Stomoway, xxiv stowage, xvi, xvii Stowell, xvi stranger, xv Stratford-on-Avon, xxxix strenuously, xvi structure, xiv Stuart, xvi Styrian, xvi subdivide, xxxvi subserviency, xxii subsist, xvii.
Seamau, xxxix stance, xvi secretary, xxvii Sedgfleld, xxxviii sedulotisness, xiv seedling, xx. Rothernam, xxxviii roundness, xxii royal, xii, xxxiii royalist, xxxiii ruin, xxii, xxxvi niin-ed, xxxvi.
Southend-on-Sca, xxxix sower, xvi Spalding, xxxix Spartan, xxi spectatorial, xxx speculate, xxx spendthrift, xxxiv. Sadducean, xvi sahib, xvi saltatory, xxvi sanctified, xxiii sand-eel,- xxv sauciest, xvi. Wapping, xxxix warehouse, xxiv warm, xiv warmth, xiv Welsh-house, xxiv weald, xxvi wealden, xxvi Wednesday, welded, xxvi Wells, xxxix xxiii.
Wordsworth, xxxviii, xxxix workhouse, xxiv would-be, xxxiii writing, xxvii, xxxi written, xxvii. Waltham, xxxviii Wandsworth, xxxviii wanton, xxxiii wantonly, xxxiii zither, xxi.
In botanical, zoological, and similar scientific terms, the names of genera are capitahzed; with species bearing the same name a capital would not, of course, be used. For example. Ranunculus, the genus; but ranunculus, a plant of this genus. Also abbot. A'bib, n. In ecclesiastical usage, the washing of the chalice and paten after Mass.
The phrase in such a context " to aid and is abet. Abyssin'ian, adj. Aca'cian, n. Aca'dian, adj. Bccom'modative, adj. In music, an instrumental support to the voice or other instruments. Musically, to play the accompaniment. Bocoid'ant, adj. Helps to form prepositional. Aceldama, n. A'oheron, n. Ad'amite, n. Adamit'ic, to adj. God's adopted Son. Adonai', n. Aege'an, adj. Seo'tional, adj.
Alba'nian, adj. Moorish Governor. Alca'ic, adj.
It was, in fact, impossible to resist the argument that it is vastly more convenient to use one book of reference than to have to use two, and accordingly the task of making the dictionary complete and self-contained was attempted, and has, it is hoped, been accompUshed to the edification of those who may refer to it. In order to keep the volume within reasonable hmits, a great degree of economy had to be practised. Words have a tendency, the result of their handling sometimes by ordinary folk and sometimes by writers, to pass from their primary and obvious meanings to metaphorical senses. Only in a large and comprehensive dictionary would it be possible to follow every word into a variety of usages, and here this has been done sparingly; for, given one or two of its meanings, anyone meeting a word in a connection different from its natural setting would at once perceive that metaphor had been at work upon it, and be able to see how it had acquired this further meaning. It is very tempting klso to trace words to their earliest discoverable source, but again that process would result in extending the bulk as well as the scope of the present book.
Title: Exercises on the grammalogues and contractions of Pitman's shorthand. Publisher: London: Sir I. download b/w PDF (original scan) · download EPUB.
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Exercises on the malogues and Contractions of Pitman's Shorthand 11, K' f LAVVYLR J. F. C. GROW LONDON SIR ISAAC PITMAN SONS, LTD, x AMEN.