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Both as a superpower and as the West's leading security provider, the US has seen its commitment to the stability of the Gulf region and the preservation of access to its oil supplies increase. US Persian Gulf policy, however, has been shaped not only by pure geopolitical considerations, but also by ideological factors concerning America's status and role in international relations. Until recently, US policy toward the Persian Gulf was distorted by the appeal of America's unchallenged military primacy.

For more than a century, energy and its procurement have been central to the U. How can U. How can non-OPEC resources best be brought to the international marketplace? And what are the risks to international security of growing global reliance on imported oil?

Opinion – Compromising US Energy Security for International Oil Market Stability

The United States' dependence on oil has long influenced its foreign policy. This timeline traces the story of U. The three major periods include the rise of oil as a commodity, beginning in ; the post-WWII age of geopolitical competition; and the current era of deregulation and diversification.

The development of the Watt steam engine in the late eighteenth century spurs a wave of mechanization in Europe and the United States known as the Industrial Revolution. Coal is the main energy source driving the revolution in its beginning years. In the mids, kerosene produced from refined crude oil begins to make its way onto the market in the United States as a lighting fuel, an alternative to the dwindling supply of whale oil.

Crude oil is successfully extracted using a new drilling method in Pennsylvania, which sparks a regional influx of speculative oil drilling. The first U. Over the next century and a half, oil supplants coal as the country's preeminent fuel source and contributes to its emergence as a major economic power.

In , the United States is responsible for 85 percent of the world's crude oil production and refining, and kerosene is the fourth largest U. However, U. Still, over the next two decades, major oil finds in states such as Texas, California, and Oklahoma help increase U.

By , more than oil byproducts—including fuel for stoves and internal combustion engines, as well as lubricants for industrial machinery—begin to enter daily life. The Spindletop gusher—the largest to date—fuels a major oil rush in Texas, and U. Henry Ford's invention of the Model T in —the world's first inexpensive, mass-produced car—helps pave the way for a significant increase in auto ownership. By , U. By , the United States is the most motorized country in the world, with one motor vehicle for roughly every five people.

Comparatively, other major industrial countries like Britain, France, and Germany have about one motor vehicle for every forty-four people. The United States continues to lead auto ownership per capita for the next century, and refined-motor fuel becomes the country's predominant use of oil.

By the s, John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil owns 90 percent of the U. In , the U. The U. Supreme Court rules in favor of the government in May These companies come to dominate much of the international oil market for the next six decades. With the onset of World War I, oil becomes vital for modern warfare, fueling ships, land vehicles, and planes. German attacks disrupt U. When the United States enters the war allied against Germany in , the Wilson administration steps up efforts to supply oil to Britain and France.

During the U. Geological Survey estimates U. Though the United States produces roughly one million barrels of oil per day, or 65 percent of global oil supplies, more than 90 percent is consumed domestically. Congress passes the Mineral Leasing Act of , which requires leasing of federal lands for energy prospecting for the first time. In response to British and French attempts to shut U. Following British and French attempts to shut U.

But the doctrine fails to take hold. Instead, a consortium of seven oil companies is given financial interest in the Iraq Petroleum Company, and the companies agree to not independently develop oil in an area that spans from Turkey to Iraq and Saudi Arabia, but excludes Kuwait, Iran, and Egypt.

This Red Line Agreement with its "self-denial clause" allows seven companies, five of which are American, to control the bulk of Mideast oil production by the early s. Technological breakthroughs and increasing oil production in Latin America, the United States, and the Middle East lead to overproduction. Disproving shortage projections by the U. Geological Survey, in less than a decade U.

Britain's attempt to stabilize European oil prices through the Achnacarry Agreement , which limits sales by oil producers, is met with mixed success. In , oil prices plummet to just a few cents a barrel. Though the Supreme Court overturns the federal quota system in , U.

Governments begin to take a more active role in the oil industry. Iranian leader Reza Shah Pahlavi in cancels the concession of the British oil company Anglo-Persia but then later retreats after striking a deal for a fixed royalty and an increase in Persian laborers employed by the company. Meanwhile, European governments impose import quotas, set prices, and require fuel blending with ethanol made from excess crops, as well as requiring investment in domestic oil infrastructure.

In , the Mexican government nationalizes the oil industry and revokes U. Mexico's actions foreshadow a wave of oil nationalizations that will follow in the decades after the war. Japan, heavily reliant on U.

In response, the U. On December 7, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor but fails to target the Navy's on-island oil storage—about 4 million barrels—leaving it to fuel the surviving Pacific fleet. By , oil shipments from the United States to allies in Europe are impeded by German U-boat attacks. When the United States enters the war, it embarks on a nationwide rationing plan that includes gas coupons and limiting driving speed to 35 miles an hour.

Efforts also are made to bolster U. Meanwhile, Venezuela enacts a new "fifty-fifty" oil law, which gives the country half of all oil profits but leaves U.

In , Saudi Arabia is found to have vast quantities of oil. In , with concerns growing about the diminishing U. A few years later, the world's biggest oil field is found in Saudi Arabia, and the country quickly becomes the world's largest exporter of oil—though it does not become a significant U.

The country plays a central role in the global recovery, including providing energy aid to a devastated Europe.

The war's end also brings about the end of U. In the decades that follow, the transportation sector's mainly automobiles share of oil consumption rises from about 50 percent to more than 70 percent. The European Recovery Program, also known as the Marshall Plan, helps war-torn Europe get access to petroleum imports.

The continent begins to become more dependent on oil for its energy needs as Europeans turn away from coal. In August , the Iranian military, with the help of British and U. Iran's oil remains nationalized, but in October the government agrees to a consortium of mainly U. To prevent running afoul of U. The two countries, in a coordinated attack with Israel , temporarily seize the canal in October.

Half the canal's traffic is petroleum, and the ensuing crisis from its closure threatens Middle East oil shipments, which supply about , barrels a day to Europe. The intervention stokes Cold War tensions, and U. President Dwight D. Eisenhower compels a withdrawal to avoid a showdown with the Soviet Union. In a speech to Congress , Eisenhower says the Middle East would be a prize for international communism and asks Congress to provide economic and military support for any nation or groups of nations in the region with "governments manifestly dedicated to the preservation of independence and resistance to subversion.

In , the world once again faces an oversupply of oil and prices are slashed. The program also gives preferential treatment to Canada and Mexico.

The quota lasts for fourteen years. Arab nations, relying heavily on oil revenue, are increasingly frustrated by oil price cuts by largely Western oil companies—and by U. In August , Western oil majors once again slash prices without consulting exporting countries. In September, representatives from Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Kuwait, Qatar, and Iran meet in Baghdad with Iraqi officials—together they represent 80 percent of the world's crude exports.

The next day, Arab oil ministers call for an embargo on countries friendly to Israel. Oil shipments halt to the United States and Britain. By September, the embargo is lifted, and, for a short time, the world experiences another oil glut. In April , OPEC moves to rebalance profit sharing and oil prices and refuses to allow foreign oil companies to deal with the organization as a whole. The bloc instead forces them into separate negotiations, one for Persian Gulf producers Tehran Agreement and one for producers on the Mediterranean Tripoli Agreement , resulting in higher prices.

The incident marks a turning point for OPEC's clout. Within a decade, many of OPEC's members begin to partially or fully nationalize their oil resources and have greater influence in setting oil prices. By the end of the s, international oil companies have unfettered access to just 7 percent of the world's oil reserves, down from 85 percent in the s. Faced with a looming gasoline shortage, in April President Richard Nixon announces he is ending the Mandatory Import Program—which sets limits on oil imports—but rejects recommendations to implement conservation efforts and develop fuel alternatives.

The import mandate comes two years after Nixon imposes oil price controls as part of his anti-inflation strategy. Oil imports, representing about 30 percent of U. Arab states respond by suspending oil shipments to nations supportive of Israel. The embargo reduces traded oil supplies by 14 percent internationally. Gasoline prices in the United States increase as much as 40 percent within a few months. Consumers in Europe, Japan, and the United States begin to panic over oil shortages.

Hours-long lines at gas stations form across America as people start to hoard gas supplies following gas rationing and price controls. President Nixon on November 7 announces a swath of new energy policies and "Project Independence," a goal of U.

With the oil embargo after the Yom Kippur War wreaking economic havoc, U. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger starts "shuttle diplomacy," helping attain disengagement between Israel and Egypt in January Arab oil ministers agree to end the embargo on March 18, , on the condition that the United States also promotes Israeli-Syrian disengagement.

Kissinger helps achieve an agreement between the two states in May, which includes a cease-fire and withdrawal of Israeli forces from some captured territories.

Energy and Security: Toward a New Foreign Policy Strategy

Read the full chapter [PDF]. Many features of the international environment influence the conceptualization of energy security and thinking about what are the best national, regional and global methods to ensure it. The recent intensification of debate about energy security has been motivated by the rising global demand for energy, a tight oil market, high oil prices, rising dependency on energy imports, and the prospect of future scarcity of oil and gas. Concerns have also been exacerbated by external events such as terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure, power blackouts in some cities and instability in some energy-producing countries. All these factors have heightened awareness in both energy consumer and producer countries of the many new challenges and threats to their energy security in the near future.

Conflict in International Relations Fellow in ill. Page 2. International Security | I.

Energy and Security: Toward a New Foreign Policy Strategy

Energy diplomacy is a form of diplomacy , and a subfield of international relations. It is closely related to its principal, foreign policy , and to overall national security , specifically energy security. Energy diplomacy began in the first half of the twentieth century and emerged as a term during the second oil crisis as a means of describing OPEC 's actions. It has since mainly focused on the securitization of energy supplies, primarily fossil fuels, but also nuclear energy and increasingly sustainable energy , on a country or bloc basis. Energy diplomacy emerged as a term during the second oil crisis as a means of describing OPEC 's actions and of characterizing the quest for the United States to secure energy independence and the Cold War relationship between Russia and satellite states regarding oil and gas exports.

On the eve of World War I, First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill made a historic decision: to shift the power source of the British navy's ships from coal to oil. He intended to make the fleet faster than its German counterpart. But the switch also meant that the Royal Navy would rely not on coal from Wales but on insecure oil supplies from what was then Persia. Energy security thus became a question of national strategy. Churchill's answer?

Ensuring Energy Security

Energy and Climate Policy. Polls and Public Opinion. This page is part of Public Opinion on Global Issues.

World Opinion on Energy Security

Few policy areas have witnessed such intense activity and rapid evolution in recent years as that of energy security. With its dependence on external oil and gas supplies inexorably rising, the European Union EU has set out to become a lead player on energy questions. This applies especially to the foreign policy dimensions of energy security. There has been much policy activity during the last five years that would seem to suggest an incremental Europeanization of key dimen-sions of energy security. Skip to main content Skip to sections.

The United States' dependence on oil has long influenced its foreign policy. This timeline traces the story of U. The three major periods include the rise of oil as a commodity, beginning in ; the post-WWII age of geopolitical competition; and the current era of deregulation and diversification. The development of the Watt steam engine in the late eighteenth century spurs a wave of mechanization in Europe and the United States known as the Industrial Revolution. Coal is the main energy source driving the revolution in its beginning years.

States vs commercial entities. • multi-level terrain, populated by hybrid actors pursuing holistic foreign policies in which energy now features as a key element.

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As the dust settles on the end of an oil price war between Saudi Arabia and Russia, the United States of America US appears to have been politically outplayed. To assist in bringing about the end of the oil war, President Trump leveraged his existing relationships with both President Vladimir Putin and Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman in order to get them to meet and negotiate. Any agreement needed to stipulate new oil production targets, but had to be commensurate to global demand and membership status of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC. However, in the effort to end the oil price war, these unorthodox relationships appear to have aided President Trump. He did not act alone, however. Together, and alongside an increasingly turbulent global energy market, President Trump had the soft power to bring Saudi Arabia and Russia to the negotiating table.

Foreign Policy and Energy Security: Markets, Pipelines, and Politics

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Alami , A. International and outward looking perspectives have not been much visible both in the policy and political realities.

 - Сирена заглушала его слова, но Хейл старался ее перекричать.  - Ты считаешь, что мы готовы взять на себя такую ответственность. Ты считаешь, что кто-нибудь готов. Это же крайне недальновидно. Ты говоришь, что наше дерьмовое правительство исходит из высших интересов людей.

 В чем же тогда проблема. В отчет вкралась какая-то ошибка? - Мидж промолчала.