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Difference Between N Type And P Type Semiconductor Pdf

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Difference between N-type semiconductors and P-type semiconductor

Latest Articles in "Industry News". Semiconductors can be differentiated as intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. P-type and N-type semiconductors both come under extrinsic semiconductors. So, what's the difference? Semiconductors have a monumental impact on our world. They are found at the heart of any electrical device that is computerized or uses radio waves.

Silicon is used so widely in semiconductors because it is an abundant element — it can be found in sand and quartz, for example — which has an ideal electronic structure. With four electrons in its outer orbital, silicon can form nice crystal structures and the four electrons can form perfect covalent bonds with four neighboring atoms to create a lattice.

In carbon, another element with four electrons in its outer orbital, this crystalline structure is known as a diamond. In silicon, this crystalline structure is a silvery, metallic-looking substance. Although they look metallic, silicon crystals are not, in fact, metals; a silicon crystal is a near insulator and only a small amount of electricity will flow through it.

By doping silicon, however, all this can be changed, and this is when p- and n-type semiconductors are formed. In semiconductors like silicon, doping is a process that intentionally introduces impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor. It involves a chemical reaction that allows impurities to form ionic bonds with silicon atoms in its crystal.

The purpose of doping is to modulate its electrical, optical and structural properties. When a semiconductor has undergone doping, it is then referred to as an extrinsic semiconductor. In contrast, a semiconductor in a pure undoped form is an intrinsic semiconductor. In silicon doping, there are two types of impurities: n-type and p-type. In n-type doping, arsenic or phosphorus is added in small quantities to the silicon. Both of these elements have five electrons in their outer orbitals and so they are not out of place when they get into the silicon crystalline structure.

Since the fifth electron has nothing to bond to, it is free to move around, allowing an electric current to flow through the silicon. In p-type doping, boron or gallium is used as the dopant. These elements each have three electrons in their outer orbitals. This means the electrons in the valence band become mobile, and the holes move in the opposite direction to the movement of the electrons. Because the dopant is fixed in the crystal lattice, only the positive charges can move.

In n-type silicon, the electrons have a negative charge, hence the name n-type. In p-type silicon, the effect of a positive charge is created in the absence of an electron, hence the name p-type. The material difference between n- and p-type doping is the direction in which the electrons flow through the deposited layers of the semiconductor.

Both n- and p-type silicon are good but not great! N- and p-type silicon are nothing amazing alone. When you put them together, however, interesting behavior is exhibited at the junction between the two. A diode is the simplest possible example of a semiconductor device that uses both n- and p-type silicon.

It allows an electrical current to flow in one single direction. Imagine a turnstile at a football stadium — a diode is a one-way turnstile gate for electrons.

A PN-junction is formed when an n- and p-type material is fused together to create a semiconductor diode. Source: ElectronicsTutorials. Everything comes down to the p-n junction. N-type silicon has extra electrons and there are atoms on the p-side that need electrons, so electrons migrate across the junction.

Alternatively: the p-side has extra holes, and there are atoms on the n-side that need holes, so the holes migrate across the junction. By applying an electric field to the p-n junction e. This turns the junction into an insulator and further inhibits electrical current flow. Atoms at the junction can now hand off charge carriers to one another, allowing current to flow freely. This is a very basic example of how the most elementary type of semiconductor device, the diode, works.

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Extrinsic semiconductor

There are two general categories of semiconductors: intrinsic semiconductors, which are composed of only one material, and extrinsic semiconductors, which have had other substances added to them to alter their properties. In semiconductor production, the process of creating extrinsic semiconductors by adding substances to a pure semiconductor for the purposes of modulating its electrical properties is known as doping. Semiconductors are doped to generate either a surplus or a deficiency in valence electrons. Electrons in free atoms have discrete energy values. The highest energy band contains valence electrons available for chemical reactions. The conduction band is the band above the valence band.

I. P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors

Here we will see the difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors. We also see the definition of p type and n type semiconductor. Let see,.

Latest Articles in "Industry News". Semiconductors can be differentiated as intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. P-type and N-type semiconductors both come under extrinsic semiconductors.

The process of purposefully adding impurities to materials is called doping; semiconductors with impurities are referred to as "doped semiconductors". In a pure intrinsic Si or Ge semiconductor, each nucleus uses its four valence electrons to form four covalent bonds with its neighbors see figure below. Since there are no excess electrons or holes In this case, the number of electrons and holes present at any given time will always be equal.

Difference between P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor

The various factors like doping element, nature of doping element, the majority and minority carriers in the p-type and n-type semiconductor.

We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. The classification of the semiconductor can be done based on doping like intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. There are many factors that generate the main difference between these two semiconductors. The formation of p-type semiconductor material can be done by adding the group III elements. Similarly, the n-type semiconductor material can be formed by adding group V elements.

An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped ; during manufacture of the semiconductor crystal a trace element or chemical called a doping agent has been incorporated chemically into the crystal, for the purpose of giving it different electrical properties than the pure semiconductor crystal, which is called an intrinsic semiconductor. In an extrinsic semiconductor it is these foreign dopant atoms in the crystal lattice that mainly provide the charge carriers which carry electric current through the crystal. The doping agents used are of two types, resulting in two types of extrinsic semiconductor.

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Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors

3 Comments

Julie C. 28.03.2021 at 13:33

We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors.

Riosehogsi 31.03.2021 at 19:06

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Janice T. 03.04.2021 at 01:12

Both p-type and n-type semiconductor is the classification of extrinsic semiconductors.

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