File Name: social identity theory tajfel and turner 1986 .zip
The theory also specifies the ways in which social identity can influence intergroup behavior. This led to a series of studies that Tajfel and his colleagues conducted in the early s that are referred to as minimal-group studies. In these studies, participants were arbitrarily assigned to different groups. Despite the fact that their group membership was meaningless, however, the research showed that participants favored the group they were assigned to — their in-group — over the out-group, even if they received no personal benefits from their group membership and had no history with members of either group. The studies demonstrated that group membership was so powerful that simply classifying people into groups is enough to make people think of themselves in terms of that group membership. Furthermore, this categorization led to in-group favoritism and out-group discrimination, indicating that intergroup conflict could exist in the absence of any direct competition between groups. On the basis of this research, Tajfel first defined the concept of social identity in
Much of the research on individual attainment in educational settings has focused on individual differences. This chapter sets out the role of groups and group processes. After reviewing evidence for the role of social comparison in the classroom, and theory and research on ethnic group differences, we consider the impact of category memberships, stereotypes, and threat on educational performance. We introduce social identity theory and explain its relevance to educational outcomes. We then offer an integrative social identity model for education SIME that incorporates three elements of education research: social comparison, stereotypes, and identity.
Originally developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological bases of intergroup discrimination, social identity theory seeks to explain the psychological and social bases for intergroup behavior and has more recently been used to also understand intragroup processes. Social identity theory can be used in the contexts of multicultural counseling, research, and practice to understand the processes by which individuals develop and maintain social identities and groups. The theory includes three core elements: social categorization, social identification, and social comparison. Individuals derive positive valuation from their ingroup i. To enhance their self-concept, individuals view their social groups as unique and of higher status than other groups. Individuals naturally categorize their social environment into those in their ingroup and those in outgroups.
). Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner ; Islam ) assumes that one part of the self-concept is defined by belonging to certain social.
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Blake Ashforth Ph. It is argued that a social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; b social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and c social identification leads to activities that are congruent with the identity, support for institutions that embody the identity, stereotypical perceptions of self and others, and outcomes that traditionally are associated with group formation, and it reinforces the antecedents of identification. This perspective is applied to organizational socialization, role conflict, and intergroup relations.
The result is an identification with a collective, depersonalized identity based on group membership and imbued with positive aspects e. SIT is a classic social psychological theory that attempts to explain intergroup conflict as a function of group-based self-definitions. Intergroup relations; out-group discrimination; social psychology of groups; group dynamics. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Turner Published Psychology.
Social identity is the portion of an individual's self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group. As originally formulated by social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the s and the s,  social identity theory introduced the concept of a social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behaviour. The term social identity approach , or social identity perspective , is suggested for describing the joint contributions of both social identity theory and self-categorization theory. The term 'social identity theory' achieved academic currency only in the late s, but the basic underlying concepts associated with it had emerged by the early twentieth century. William G.
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