File Name: ediacaran and burgess shale fauna .zip
The "Cambrian Explosion" refers to the sudden appearance in the fossil record of complex animals with mineralized skeletal remains. It may represent the most important evolutionary event in the history of life on Earth.
Evidence from Precambrian carbonate and siliciclastic sedimentary structures indicates that in marine settings before the Cambrian conditions of seafloor environments were largely controlled by microbes and the mats which they form. During the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, a vertical component to marine bioturbation evolved, as well as overall increased seafloor bioturbation.
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BST deposits from the Ediacaran are rarer and lack conclusive evidence for animals. Here we report the discovery of a new Ediacaran BST deposit with exceptional preservation of non-mineralizing macro-organisms in thinly bedded black shale from Zavkhan Province, western Mongolia. This fossil assemblage, here named the Zuun-Arts biota, currently consists of two new species of probable macroscopic multicellular benthic algae.
One species, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. The other species, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n. SEM-EDS analysis shows that the fossils are composed of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, a composition comparable to fossils from the Cambrian Burgess Shale biota. This discovery opens a new window through which to view late Precambrian life. Ediacaran BST deposits are known from several localities around the globe, including Siberia 1 , India 2 , Paraguay 3 , the western United States 4 , the Yangtze Platform of South China 5 , 6 and various upper Ediacaran deposits containing the multicellular benthic alga Vendotaenia 7 , 8.
None of them contain unambiguous animal fossils. The most diverse of these assemblages are the two from the Yangtze Platform of South China, the Lantian and Miaohe biotas 5 , 6. They both contain mostly benthic multicellular eukaryotic algae fossils preserved as carbonaceous compressions in fine-grained marine shales 5 , 6 , 9 , They share several algal taxa The Lantian biota is preserved in the Ediacaran Lantian Formation in Anhui Province, China and contains 15 taxa, some of which have been interpreted as cnidarian, or even potentially bilaterian-grade, organisms 9.
The Miaohe biota contains about 20 taxa and is preserved in the upper part of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in Hubei Province, China 6. It contains one possible vermiform animal taxon 6. The older of these radiometric dates remains controversial, however Abundant fragmentary specimens of a new species of probable benthic multicellular algae, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. Carbonates dominate the formation in its Ediacaran portion and it underlies the mixed carbonate—siliciclastic sequences of the Cambrian Bayan Gol Formation.
The regional Ediacaran—Cambrian boundary is placed near the top of the Zuun-Arts Formation based on a large negative carbon isotope excursion 14 and the first appearance of the penetrative trace fossil Treptichnus pedum in the overlying Bayan Gol Formation 14 , Exceptionally preserved algal fossils have also been recovered from talus higher in the shale. These strata will be excavated in the future.
Figure was drafted using Adobe Illustrator CC www. Petrographic thin section analysis shows the dominant microfacies to be an unmetamorphosed thinly laminated quartzose siltstone Supplementary Fig. The fossils are found between two distinctive facies: a lower carbonate containing conspicuous stromatolites and an upper thin bed of cherty phosphorite Fig. These bounding facies are correlative to stratigraphic units 9 and 10 of Khomentovsky and Gibsher 16 at the Ediacaran—Cambrian boundary section at Bayan Gol in adjacent Gobi-Altai Province.
The biota is therefore at the base of the Zuun-Arts Formation 13 , 14 , 17 in what appears to be a transgressive lag deposit. Recent sequence stratigraphic, chemostratigraphic and biostratigraphic work confirms an upper Ediacaran age for these strata 13 , 14 , This may mean that it is slightly older than Ma, which would put it within the younger age estimates for the Miaohe biota Chinggiskhaania bifurcata has thin filaments lacking transverse longitudinal divisions or ornamentation that gently curl and rarely branch Fig.
The filaments have fine lengthwise lineations that are not always well preserved. Mean filament width is 0. There does not appear to be any consistent distal tapering in filament width.
Some filaments have fluctuating widths along their length, suggestive of twisting deformation. Filament fragments are the most common mode of preservation and they are innumerable in the fossiliferous zone of the strata.
One well-preserved specimen contains just four filaments, showing that the filaments are not densely grouped Fig. Two specimens preserve details of the basal region of the organism, showing a narrow attachment area below a stem of tightly gathered filaments Fig. Based on the branching filaments, thallus-like morphology and basal attachment structures that resemble a stipe and holdfast, C.
It differs significantly from these genera in that its filaments are not as densely assembled in the thallus as either genus, they do not branch as commonly as in Doushantuophyton and they lack the septation of the filaments of Huangshanophyton 6 , 9.
Photographs and photomicrographs of exceptionally preserved multicellular algae fossils from Zuun-Arts biota. Photographs taken under cross-polarized light. Base of specimen is poorly preserved. Photomicrographs taken under normal light. The other new species of probable multicellular benthic algae in this biota, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n.
Its attachment structures are unknown. This species is not closely comparable to any algal taxa from the Miaohe or Lantian biotas. C is also locally concentrated in portions of the specimens, but is not preferentially associated with any morphological feature of the fossils Fig. These results are consistent with preservation as aluminosilicate clay mineral films with some carbon present. The fossils were likely originally preserved as carbon films and were diagenetically altered to aluminosilicate minerals.
Small areas of high Fe concentration also occur in one specimen in the same zones as high C concentration Fig. SEM examination of these zones reveals framboidal minerals consistent with pyrite Supplementary Fig. This pyrite likely precipitated as a result of the sulfate reduction during the decay of the filaments.
Similar pyrite framboid concentrations are known from Lantian and Miaohe biota fossils These SEM-EDS results are comparable to the fossil assemblages of the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale biota, which are also preserved as aluminosilicate clay mineral films This preservational style contrasts with the Lantian and Miaohe biotas and most Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits, which primarily preserve fossils as carbon films 10 , Original backscatter image on left.
Note high concentrations of Al, Si and some C in filament. There is also one small zone of high Fe concentration shown in blue. Discovery of the exceptionally preserved fossils of the Zuun-Arts biota opens a new preservational window through which to view Ediacaran multicellular life. It is currently a low-diversity assemblage consisting of two probable multicellular benthic algae species.
In this way, the Zuun-Arts biota is comparable to most other Ediacaran BST biotas, which are either monospecific or low-diversity assemblages of probable multicellular benthic algae or enigmatic taxa. Future excavation of this biota will determine if this remains the case. At this point, the Zuun-Arts biota is also similar to all other Ediacaran BST deposits in that it contains no unambiguous evidence for animals. Macroscopic animal-grade organisms are well known from other Ediacaran taphonomic windows, most notably in classical Ediacaran biota-style sandstone mold and cast preservational settings.
With their sub-millimeter preservational capabilities, Ediacaran BST deposits should theoretically preserve animals relatively easily.
This is certainly true of Cambrian BST deposits, which preserve a range of soft-bodied animal phyla in exquisite detail Although putative animal fossils have been described from Ediacaran BST deposits 6 , it remains unclear why they do not contain clear animal fossils.
One possible explanation may be that the kind of animals that this preservational mode favors, such as ecdysozoans with their more preservable recalcitrant cuticle tissues 22 , simply did not exist yet. The Zuun-Arts biota was discovered in the summer of from loose fossils in float. Numerous poorly preserved fragmentary specimens were left behind. Morphological data was collected in the laboratory, consisting of filament width measurements and 7 branching angle measurements.
Zuunartsphyton delicatum fossils were photographed under normal light with a Zeiss AxioCam MRc5 digital imager attached to a Zeiss Stemi C binocular microscope. Zeiss Axiovision digital imaging software was used to process these images.
How to cite this article : Dornbos, S. A new Burgess Shale-type deposit from the Ediacaran of western Mongolia. Grazhdankin, D. Carbonate-hosted Avalon-type fossils from arctic Siberia. Geology 36, — Tarhan, L. Precambrian—Cambrian boundary interval occurrence and form of the enigmatic tubular body fossil Shaanxilithes ningqiangensis from the lesser Himalaya of India. Palaeontology 57, — Warren, L. Origin and impact of the oldest metazoan bioclastic sediments.
Geology 41, — Rowland, S. A multicellular alga with exceptional preservation from the Ediacaran of Nevada. Paleontology 88, — Yuan, X. A diverse metaphyte assemblage from the Neoproterozoic black shales of South China.
Lethaia 32, — Google Scholar. Xiao, S.
The Ediacara formerly Vendian biota are ancient life-forms of the Ediacaran Period , which represent the earliest known complex multicellular organisms. Little of the diversity of the Ediacara biota would be incorporated in this new scheme, with a distinct Cambrian biota arising and usurping the organisms that dominated the Ediacaran fossil record. The organisms of the Ediacaran Period first appeared around million years ago and flourished until the cusp of the Cambrian million years ago , when the characteristic communities of fossils vanished. While rare fossils that may represent survivors have been found as late as the Middle Cambrian to million years ago , the earlier fossil communities disappear from the record at the end of the Ediacaran, leaving only controversial fragments of once-thriving ecosystems , if anything. Some Ediacaran organisms might have been closely related to groups that would rise to prominence later; for instance, Kimberella shows some similarity to molluscs , and other organisms have been thought to show bilateral symmetry , though this is controversial. Most microscopic fossils are morphologically distinct from later life-forms: they resemble discs, mud-filled bags, or quilted mattresses.
Article, pp. James D. Darroch 2 , Marc Laflamme 3 , Yaoping Cai 4. As signposted by the fossil record, the early Cambrian period chronicles the appearance and evolutionary diversification of most animal phyla in a geologically rapid event, traditionally termed the Cambrian Explosion. The uniqueness of this event pleads for a cause, and over the years, numerous biotic and abiotic factors have been offered as possible triggers. Many such explanations, however, either fail to correspond in time or do not provide a functional mechanism to explain the evolutionary pattern of animal diversification.
A number of assemblages bear fossil assemblages similar in character to that of the Burgess Shale. While many are also preserved in a similar fashion to the Burgess Shale , the term " Burgess Shale type fauna " covers assemblages based on taxonomic criteria only. The fauna of the middle Cambrian has a cosmopolitan range. All assemblages preserving soft-part anatomy have a very similar fauna, even though they span almost every continent. The fauna is composed of a range of soft bodied organisms; creatures with hard, mineralised skeletons are rare, although trilobites are quite commonly found. The major soft-bodied groups are sponges, palaeoscolecid worms, lobopods , arthropods and anomalocaridids.
The team is looking at a rather ancient creature, Dickinsonia. This is well before the already ancient Cambrian explosion, the one that produced the strange Burgess Shale fauna. Did the Cambrian organisms arise and displace or even just eat the Ediacaran ones? Did ocean conditions change too much or too quickly for them? All of the above?
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Но ведь вы ищете ключ к шифру, а не ювелирное изделие. - Конечно. Но я думаю, что одно с другим может быть связано самым непосредственным образом. Сьюзан отказывалась его понимать. - Это долгая история.
- Я ошиблась. - Она сдвинула брови, задумавшись, почему ТРАНСТЕКСТ за весь день не взломал ни единого шифра. - Позволь мне кое-что проверить, - сказала она, перелистывая отчет. Найдя то, что искала, Мидж пробежала глазами цифры и минуту спустя кивнула: - Ты прав, Чед.
These were composed of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile , organisms.Lua L. 17.03.2021 at 03:05
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