File Name: types of cement and their properties .zip
Cement is a mixture of different constituents and acts as the main constituent in concrete, Egyptians first manufactured Cementing materials by burning gypsum.
In the construction industry, there are different types of cement. The differences between each type of cement are its properties, uses and composition materials used during the manufacturing process. Cement is a cover material which makes a bond between aggregates and reinforcing materials. Over the years, cement in Malaysia has further developed thanks to technology. There are different types of cement for different construction works.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete , mortar , stucco , and non-specialty grout. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the early 19th century by Joseph Aspdin , and usually originates from limestone. It is a fine powder , produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker , grinding the clinker, and adding 2 to 3 percent of gypsum.
Several types of Portland cement are available. The most common, called ordinary Portland cement OPC , is grey, but white Portland cement is also available. Its name is derived from its resemblance to Portland stone which was quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset , England. It was named by Joseph Aspdin who obtained a patent for it in However, his son William Aspdin is regarded as the inventor of "modern" Portland cement due to his developments in the s.
Portland cement is caustic , so it can cause chemical burns. Environmental concerns are the high energy consumption required to mine, manufacture, and transport the cement, and the related air pollution, including the release of greenhouse gases e. The low cost and widespread availability of the limestone, shales, and other naturally-occurring materials used in Portland cement make it one of the lowest-cost materials widely used over the last century.
Concrete produced from Portland cement is one of the world's most versatile construction materials. Portland cement was developed from natural cements made in Britain beginning in the middle of the 18th century.
Its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone , a type of building stone quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. The development of modern Portland cement sometimes called ordinary or normal Portland cement began in , when John Smeaton experimented with combinations of different limestones and additives, including trass and pozzolanas , relating to the planned construction of a lighthouse,  now known as Smeaton's Tower.
In the late 18th century, Roman cement was developed and patented in by James Parker. Vicat's cement is an artificial hydraulic lime , and is considered the 'principal forerunner'  of Portland cement. The name Portland cement is recorded in a directory published in being associated with a William Lockwood and possibly others. William Aspdin had left his father's company, to form his own cement manufactury.
In the s William Aspdin, apparently accidentally, produced calcium silicates which are a middle step in the development of Portland cement. In , William Aspdin further improved his cement. Then, in , he moved to Germany, where he was involved in cement making. In , John Grant of the Metropolitan Board of Works, set out requirements for cement to be used in the London sewer project. This became a specification for Portland cement.
The next development in the manufacture of Portland cement was the introduction of the rotary kiln , patented by Frederick Ransome in U. This cement was made at the Portland Cementfabrik Stern at Stettin, which was the first to use a Hoffmann kiln.
Portland cement had been imported into the United States from Germany and England, and in the s and s, it was being produced by Eagle Portland cement near Kalamazoo, Michigan.
Saylor in Coplay, Pennsylvania. The European Standard EN uses the following definition:. The ratio of CaO to SiO 2 shall not be less than 2. The magnesium oxide content MgO shall not exceed 5.
The last two requirements were already set out in the German Standard , issued in Clinkers are nodules diameters, 0. The materials in cement clinker are alite, belite, tri-calcium aluminate, and tetra-calcium alumino ferrite. The aluminium, iron, and magnesium oxides are present as a flux allowing the calcium silicates to form at a lower temperature,  and contribute little to the strength.
The major raw material for the clinker-making is usually limestone CaCO 3 mixed with a second material containing clay as source of alumino-silicate. Normally, an impure limestone which contains clay or SiO 2 is used.
Secondary raw materials materials in the raw mix other than limestone depend on the purity of the limestone. Some of the materials used are clay , shale , sand , iron ore, bauxite , fly ash , and slag. When a cement kiln is fired by coal, the ash of the coal acts as a secondary raw material. This is achieved in a cement mill. The measure of fineness usually used is the ' specific surface area ', which is the total particle surface area of a unit mass of cement.
The rate of initial reaction up to 24 hours of the cement on addition of water is directly proportional to the specific surface area. The cement is conveyed by belt or powder pump to a silo for storage.
Cement plants normally have sufficient silo space for one to 20 weeks of production, depending upon local demand cycles. The cement is delivered to end users either in bags, or as bulk powder blown from a pressure vehicle into the customer's silo. Cement sets when mixed with water by way of a complex series of chemical reactions still only partly understood. Carbon dioxide is slowly absorbed to convert the portlandite Ca OH 2 into insoluble calcium carbonate.
After the initial setting, immersion in warm water will speed up setting. Gypsum is added as an inhibitor to prevent flash or quick setting. The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate gravel and sand , cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural load bearing element.
Concrete can be used in the construction of structural elements like panels, beams, and street furniture , or may be cast- in situ for superstructures like roads and dams. These may be supplied with concrete mixed on site, or may be provided with ' ready-mixed ' concrete made at permanent mixing sites.
When water is mixed with Portland cement, the product sets in a few hours, and hardens over a period of weeks. In principle, the strength continues to rise slowly as long as water is available for continued hydration [ dubious — discuss ] , but concrete is usually allowed to dry out after a few weeks and this causes strength growth to stop.
Type I Portland cement is known as common or general-purpose cement. It is generally assumed unless another type is specified. It is commonly used for general construction, especially when making precast, and precast-prestressed concrete that is not to be in contact with soils or ground water. The typical compound compositions of this type are:. Type II provides moderate sulfate resistance, and gives off less heat during hydration. This type of cement costs about the same as type I.
Its typical compound composition is:. This type is for general construction exposed to moderate sulfate attack, and is meant for use when concrete is in contact with soils and ground water, especially in the western United States due to the high sulfur content of the soils. Because of similar price to that of type I, type II is much used as a general purpose cement, and the majority of Portland cement sold in North America meets this specification.
Note: Cement meeting among others the specifications for types I and II has become commonly available on the world market. This cement is similar to type I, but ground finer. The gypsum level may also be increased a small amount.
This gives the concrete using this type of cement a three-day compressive strength equal to the seven-day compressive strength of types I and II. Its seven-day compressive strength is almost equal to day compressive strengths of types I and II. The only downside is that the six-month strength of type III is the same or slightly less than that of types I and II.
Therefore, the long-term strength is sacrificed. It is usually used for precast concrete manufacture, where high one-day strength allows fast turnover of molds. It may also be used in emergency construction and repairs, and construction of machine bases and gate installations. Type IV Portland cement is generally known for its low heat of hydration. A limitation on this type is that the maximum percentage of C 3 A is seven, and the maximum percentage of C 3 S is thirty-five. This causes the heat given off by the hydration reaction to develop at a slower rate.
However, as a consequence the strength of the concrete develops slowly. After one or two years the strength is higher than the other types after full curing. This cement is used for very large concrete structures, such as dams, which have a low surface to volume ratio. This type of cement is generally not stocked by manufacturers, but some might consider a large special order. This type of cement has not been made for many years, because Portland-pozzolan cements and ground granulated blast furnace slag addition offer a cheaper and more reliable alternative.
Type V is used where sulfate resistance is important. This cement has a very low C 3 A composition which accounts for its high sulfate resistance. This type is used in concrete to be exposed to alkali soil and ground water sulfates which react with C 3 A causing disruptive expansion. It is unavailable in many places, although its use is common in the western United States and Canada. As with type IV, type V Portland cement has mainly been supplanted by the use of ordinary cement with added ground granulated blast furnace slag or tertiary blended cements containing slag and fly ash.
The air-entrainment must meet the minimum and maximum optional specification found in the ASTM manual. These types are only available in the eastern United States and Canada, only on a limited basis.
They are a poor approach [ clarification needed ] to air-entrainment which improves resistance to freezing under low temperatures. The European norm EN defines five classes of common cement that comprise Portland cement as a main constituent. These classes differ from the ASTM classes.
The Canadian standards describe six main classes of cement, four of which can also be supplied as a blend containing ground limestone where a suffix L is present in the class names. White Portland cement or white ordinary Portland cement WOPC is similar to ordinary, grey, Portland cement in all respects, except for its high degree of whiteness. Obtaining this colour requires high purity raw materials low Fe 2 O 3 content , and some modification to the method of manufacture, among others a higher kiln temperature required to sinter the clinker in the absence of ferric oxides acting as a flux in normal clinker.
Because of this, it is somewhat more expensive than the grey product. The main requirement is to have a low iron content which should be less than 0. It also helps to have the iron oxide as ferrous oxide FeO which is obtained via slightly reducing conditions in the kiln, i.
Dunuweera, R. We first discuss cement production and special nomenclature used by cement industrialists in expressing the composition of their cement products. We reveal different types of cement products, their compositions, properties, and typical uses. Wherever possible, we tend to give reasons as to why a particular cement type is more suitable for a given purpose than other types. Cement manufacturing processes are associated with emissions of large quantities of greenhouse gases and environmental pollutants.
Depending upon the materials used for mortar mixture The American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM classifies Portland cement into different types, based on the proportion of chemicals in each one. In this article, we will discuss 16 different types of cement and their uses in construction work. But how do you measure the quality of cement? Ferro cement consists of closely spaced wire-meshes which are impregnated with a rich mix of cement mortar. We first discuss cement production and special nomenclature used by cement industrialists in expressing the composition of their cement products. The types are: 1.
Every type of cement has their own properties, advantages, and disadvantages. In this article, you are going to learn the most important properties of different types of cement in details. Portland cement is a product obtained by the calcination at a very high temperature, an intimate mixture of correctly proportioned calcareous and argillaceous materials. Clinker is then finally pulverized by grinding into a very fine powder and is finally mixed with calcium sulfatae or gypsum to obtain cement. And Argillaceous ones include mainly silica, alumina, and oxide of iron such as clay and shale. Cement is manufactured in several varieties, but the most common one used is the normal setting or ordinary cement, usually called Portland cement. These are manufactured with two or more raw materials.
Quick setting cement.
Small amounts of uncombined lime and magnesia also are present, along with alkalies and minor amounts of other elements. The most important hydraulic constituents are the calcium silicates, C 2 S and C 3 S. Then, for reasons that are not fully understood, hydration comes to a stop. This quiescent , or dormant, period is extremely important in the placement of concrete.
A cement is a binder , a substance used for construction that sets , hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel aggregate together.
Несколько недель назад, когда я прослышал о том, что Танкадо предложил выставить Цифровую крепость на аукцион, я вынужден был признать, что он настроен весьма серьезно. Я понимал, что если он продаст свой алгоритм японской компании, производящей программное обеспечение, мы погибли, поэтому мне нужно было придумать, как его остановить. Я подумал о том, чтобы его ликвидировать, но со всей этой шумихой вокруг кода и его заявлений о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ мы тут же стали бы первыми подозреваемыми.
Дэвид Беккер. Единственный мужчина, которого она любила. Самый молодой профессор Джорджтаунского университета, блестящий ученый-лингвист, он пользовался всеобщим признанием в академическом мире. Наделенный феноменальной памятью и способностями к языкам, он знал шесть азиатских языков, а также прекрасно владел испанским, французским и итальянским. На его лекциях по этимологии яблоку негде было упасть, и он всегда надолго задерживался в аудитории, отвечая на нескончаемые вопросы.
Джабба нахмурился. - Мы это уже обсудили. Забыла.
Бринкерхофф смотрел на массивную фигуру директора, возвышающуюся над письменным столом. Таким он его еще никогда не. Фонтейн, которого он знал, был внимателен к мелочам и требовал самой полной информации. Он всегда поощрял сотрудников к анализу и прояснению всяческих нестыковок в каждодневных делах, какими бы незначительными они ни казались.
Такие перестановки - стандартный прием. Танкадо знал, что вы испробуете различные варианты, пока не наткнетесь на что-нибудь подходящее. NDAKOTA - слишком простое изменение. - Возможно, - сказал Стратмор, потом нацарапал несколько слов на бумажке и протянул ее Сьюзан.
Ни за какие деньги. - Простите, сэр, вы, кажется, меня не… - Merde alors. Я отлично все понял! - Он уставил на Беккера костлявый указательный палец, и его голос загремел на всю палату. - Вы не первый. Они уже пытались сделать то же самое в Мулен Руж, в отеле Брауне пэлис и в Голфиньо в Лагосе.
Я верю этим данным. Чутье подсказывает мне, что здесь все верно. Бринкерхофф нахмурился.
Вы хотите сказать, что он не нападет на весь банк данных? - с надеждой спросил Бринкерхофф. - Это ведь хорошо, правда. - Нет! - взорвался Джабба. - Это плохо.
- Буду у своего терминала. - Как ты думаешь, сколько времени это займет. - Ну… - задумалась Сьюзан. - Это зависит от оперативности, с которой ARA пересылает почту. Если адресат находится в Штатах и пользуется такими провайдерами, как Америка онлайн или Компьюсерв, я отслежу его кредитную карточку и получу его учетную запись в течение часа.
Хотя в последнее мгновение Беккер увернулся, Халохот сумел все же его зацепить. Он понимал, что пуля лишь слегка оцарапала жертву, не причинив существенного ущерба, тем не менее она сделала свое. Контакт был установлен. Жертва ощутила прикосновение смерти, и началась совершенно иная игра. Беккер мчался, не видя ничего вокруг, постоянно сворачивал, избегая прямых участков.
Он был зашифрован с помощью некоего нового алгоритма, с которым фильтры еще не сталкивались. Джаббе потребовалось почти шесть часов, чтобы их настроить. Бринкерхофф выглядел растерянным.
Сьюзан нашла свои валявшиеся на ковре итальянские туфли, на мгновение оглянулась, увидела все еще корчившегося на полу Грега Хейла и бросилась бежать по усеянному стеклянным крошевом полу шифровалки. ГЛАВА 68 - Ну видишь, это совсем не трудно, - презрительно сказала Мидж, когда Бринкерхофф с видом побитой собаки протянул ей ключ от кабинета Фонтейна. - Я все сотру перед уходом, - пообещала. - Если только вы с женой не захотите сохранить этот фильм для своей частной коллекции.
А-а, Росио - прелестное создание. - Мне нужно немедленно ее увидеть. - Но, сеньор, она занята с клиентом.
Шифры, которые невозможно взломать. Банкиры, брокеры, террористы, шпионы - один мир, один алгоритм. Анархия.
Construction documents often specify a cement type based on the required performance of the concrete or the placement conditions.