File Name: extraction of oil and jellose from tamarind seeds .zip
This work was carried out in collaboration among all authors. Author TAdesigned the study, performed the statistical analysis and wrote the protocol. Author SK conducted the experiment and wrote the first draft of the manuscript.
Polysaccharides obtained by extraction from the kernel of seeds of the tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica Linn. Such tamarind polysaccharides form mucilaginous dispersions with water and possess the characteristic property of forming gels with sugar concentrates, as do fruit pectins. However, the tamarind polysaccharides differ from other fruit pectins in that tamarind polysaccharides are capable of forming gels over a wide pH range, including neutral and basic pH conditions.
Polysaccharides obtained by extraction from the kernel of seeds of the tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica Linn. Such tamarind polysaccharides form mucilaginous dispersions with water and possess the characteristic property of forming gels with sugar concentrates, as do fruit pectins.
However, the tamarind polysaccharides differ from other fruit pectins in that tamarind polysaccharides are capable of forming gels over a wide pH range, including neutral and basic pH conditions. Another advantage which tamarind polysaccharides possess over the fruit pectins is that they are not affected by boiling in neutral aqueous solutions even for as long as two hours.
Fruit pectins on the other hand, undergo degradation on boiling; their gelling power falls to onethird of the original value after boiling for an hour. For these and other reasons, it would be desirable to provide an improved method for separating tamarind polysaccharides from the seed kernels. Prior art methods for separating polysaccharides from tamarind kernels have utilized their solubility in hot aqueous solutions. A substantial proportion of the remainder of the kernel, which includes protein, fat, and kernel fibers, is insoluble.
Such prior art methods, however, are not advantageous because extremely high proportions of water are required for effective extraction. They are further undesirable in that certain fats and oils and inorganic components in the remainder of the tamarind kernel are partially soluble in the water extract and may undesirably affect filterability and clarity of the extract or they may impart off flavors to any resultant products in which the polysaccharides are used.
Accordingly, it is the principal object of the present invention to provide improved tamarind polysaccharides. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved method for their recovery. A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved method for the extraction of polysaccharides from tamarind kernels. Further objects and advantages will be apparent from a study of the following detailed description.
Generally, in accordance with the present invention, tamarind kernels are subjected to a first extraction with a suitable organic solvent to provide an organic extract. Thereafter, the tamarind kernels are subjected to a second extraction with an aqueous solvent to provide an aqueous extract.
The aqueous extract may thereafter be subjected to further treatment to recover tamarind polysaccharides therefrom. In this connection, treatment of tamarind kernels, in accordance with this invention, by a first extraction with an organic solvent provides an aqueous filtrate containing polysaccharides from the second water extraction that is considerably clearer and easier to filter than if the polysaccharides are extracted from the tamarind kernels using a water extraction step alone.
The first extraction with an organic solvent also provides a polysaccharide product that is free from the bitter flavor and rancid aroma normally associated with polysaccharides extracted from tamarind kernels with water alone. The present invetnion includes a method whereby tamarind polysaccharides can be prepared in highly pure form and on a small or large scale, batchwise or continuously.
Furthermore, the present invention provides improved polysaccharides suitable for gelling sugar syrups at various levels of pH and which are not affected by prolonged periods of boiling. More particularly, in the practice of the present invention, tamarind kernel powder, hereinafter referred to as TKP, is utilized. TKP is a commercially available product obtained by separating the hull of tamarind seeds from the kernel and grinding the kernel.
For purposes of this invention the mesh size of the TKP is not critical and may range from a coarsely ground material to a finely ground material. However, the time required. In addition to its polysaccharide contenflTKP comprises a mixture of proteins, fiber, fat, inorganic salts, and tannins. The first extraction with an organic solvent removes most of the proteins and fat. Since these cornponents are also partially or wholly soluble in water, the first extratcion prevents these components from interfering with the second aqueous extraction of the polysaccharides, and from contributing undesirable taste or flavor to the polysaccharides.
Although the reasons are not clearly understood, the first extraction appears also to be responsible for effecting the aqueous extraction of the pure polysaccharides with a lower level of water than has heretofore been possible. The first extraction may be effected by numerous organic solvents which will dissolve the undesirable proteins and fats and in which the polysaccharides have limited solubility.
Preferred organic solvents are polar organic compounds, such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and ethers, and such polar organic compounds which contain mixed functional groups. A preferred group of polar organic compounds are short chain aliphatic alcohols or polyols, having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
A particularly preferred organic compound is isopropanol. The level of organic solvent required for effecting the first extraction is not critical, however a sufiicient quantity should be used to form a free flowing slurry that may be readily filtered. This may be accomplished at levels of organic solvent to TKP of from about to about by weight. The first extraction is most effectively carried out at elevated temperatures of from about C.
After the first extraction is completed, the slurry mixture is filtered by any suitable method whereby the filter cake may be recovered without contamination. The recovered filter cake, containing the polysaccharides along with some protein, fat and the fiber of the TKP, is dried at a low temperature to prevent degrading the polysaccharide and is then used for the second extraction of the polysaccharide with water.
According to the practice of this invention, the dried organic extracted TKP is contacted with from about 25 to about 35 times its own weight of water. The resulting slurry is warmed to from about F. After holding for a suitable time at the elevated temperature the dissolved polysaccharides are separated from the undissolved TKP by filtration. The pure polysaccharides are then recovered from the dilute filtrate solution by any suitable separation process, such as roll drying or alcohol precipitation.
When roll drying is used to effect recovery of the polysaccharides from the filtrate of the water extraction, it has been discovered that unless the dilute solution of polysaccharides is combined with a suitable parting agent priorto roll drying, the polysaccharides tend to form a gummy cohesive mass on the rolls that is extremely difficult to remove.
Consequently, an important step, when roll drying is used to recover the polysaccharides from the filtrate, involves the addition of a parting agent to the filtrate prior to drying. Lecithin has been found to be a'particularly effective parting agent for this purpose. However, when used in quantities sufficient to be effective', lecithin tends to impart off flavors to the poly saccharides that may be detected in subsequent food products in which the polysaccharides may be employed.
Also the stability of lecithin under extended periods of storage is not advantageous. This may be overcome by using lecithin in combination with other parting agents, such as glycerol monostearate or polysorbitans, An example of commercially available glycerol monostearate is available under the trade name Myverol , and Myverol One such polysorbitan is commercially available under the trade name Hodag PSMO 20,which is polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monoleate. Lecithin may be combined with glycerol monostearate or polysorbitans at weight ratios from about to about A particularly preferred combination is one part lecithin to three parts of glycerol monostearate.
The lecithin mixtures when added to the filtrate solution as a parting agent, at a level of from about 3 percent to about 7 percent by weight based on the weight of polysaccharides present, permit effective roll drying with good parting characteristics and without imparting otf flavors to the polysaccharides.
The roll drying characteristics of tamarind polysaccharides may also be improved by adding sucrose to the filtrate solution of polysaccharides. At ratios of sucrose to polysaccharides of from about 0.
Higher levels of sucrose provide greater improvement in roll drying characteristics. However, when the level of sucrose is increased, there is also an increase in softness of the gel characteristics of products prepared from the resultant roll dried product. It is therefore preferred not to use sucrose addition levels above a weight ratio of about 1.
Various advantages and features of the method and product of this invention are presented more specifically in the following examples. Six hundred gallons of isopropanol were charged into a stainthe jacket. The alcohol slurry of TKP was centrifuged and the wet cake was collected and vacuum dried.
The resultant product was screened and stored for use in the following examples wherein the tamarind polysaccharides were recovered by water extraction. Approximately gallons of cold water and pounds of filter aid were added to a gal. The slurry was diluted to gal. The agitated slurry was held at that temperature for '30 minutes.
The slurry was then pumped to a pressurized holding tank and subsequently filtered through a plate and frame filter press. The clarity of the filtrate was determined using a'Klett- Summerson spectrophotometer equipped with a millimicron blue filter, wherein the optical density or light transmittance of the sample is measured. The instrument is scaled so that an opaque sample has a value of 1.
The results are presented below in Table I and are compared with filtrate samples obtained by water extraction alone, without the first organic solvent extraction as described in Example I. The TKP was added to the kettle while the isopropanol was agitated. The temperature of the resulting alcohol slurry was brought to 78 C. The polysaccharide product may be efliciently and economically recovered from a filtrate solution by roll drying with suitable parting agents.
Due to the inert, tasteless, colorless, odorless, and colloidal properties of the polysaccharides of this invention, their use in a number of industries in addition to those of food and textiles is indicated.
They have demonstrated ability to serve as thickeners, stabilizers, adhesives, emulsifying agents and binding agents. In addition, because tamarind seed polysaccharides have many properties similar to those of fruit pectins they may find use as a pharmaceutical product.
Accordingly, a product and a process have been provided for a unique polysaccharide product that is useful as a substitute for fruit pectins. It will be understood that various changes and modifications may be made in the specific examples recited herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
A process for recovering an improved polysaccharide from tamarind seed kernels which comprises, in combination, the steps of grinding tamarind seed kernels to provide tamarind kernel powder, treating the tamarind kernel powder with a polar organic compound selected from the class consisting of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, polyols and ethers, said polar organic compound being present at a level sufiicient to provide a fluid slurry, recovering the treated tamarind kernel powder from the polar organic compound, contacting the treated tamarind kernel powder with a substantial excess of water with respect to the weight of the tamarind kernel powder so as to extract the polysaccharides, separating the water, containing polysaccharides, from the remaining tamarind kernel powder, and recovering the polysaccharides from the water.
The process of claim 1 in which the polar organic compound is a short chain aliphatic alcohol or polyol, having from 1 to 4 carbons. The process of claims 1, 2, or 3 in which the polysaccharide extract is separated from the treated tamarind seed kernel by filtration.
The process of claim 4 in which the polysaccharide is recovered from the aqueous filtrate by roll drying. The process of claim 4 in which the polysaccharide is recovered from the aqueous filtrate by adding ethyl alcohol. The process of claim 7 in which the parting agent is a mixture of lecithin and glycerol monostearate added at a level of from about 3 percent to about 7 percent based on the weight of the polysaccharide.
The process of claim 7 in which the parting agent is a mixture of lecithin and polysorbitans added at a level of from about 3 percent to about 7 percent based on the weight of the polysaccharide. The process of claim 7 in which sucrose is added at a weight ratio of polysaccharides of from about 0.
The process of claim 1 wherein said water is heated to a temperature of from about F. The process of claim 1 wherein the substantial excess of water is at least about 25 times by Weight of the tamarind kernel powder. Savr et al. SOL Filed Feb.
Various features of the present invention are set forth in the following claims. What is claimed is: 1. The process of claim 1 in which the polar organic compound is isopropanol. The process of claim 5 in which a parting agent is added to the aqueous filtrate. US USA en USA en. Separating levoglucosan and carbohydrate acids from aqueous mixtures containing the same-by solvent extraction.
USB1 en. USB2 en. CAA en.
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Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae Fabaceae , Tamarindus indica L. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. Medicinal plants are the back bone of Traditional medicine.
Author s : Kailas K. Mali , Shashikant C. Dhawale , Remeth J. Email s : malikailas gmail. DOI:
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Сьюзан была согласна с этим, но в то же время прекрасно понимала: Фонд электронных границ никогда не узнает, насколько важен и нужен ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Эта машина помогла предотвратить десятки преступлений, но связанная с ней информация строго засекречена и никогда не будет раскрыта. Причина такой секретности проста: правительство не может допустить массовой истерии. Никто не знает, как поведет себя общество, узнав, что группы фундаменталистов дважды за прошлый год угрожали ядерным объектам, расположенным на территории США. Ядерное нападение было, однако, не единственной угрозой. Только в прошлом месяце благодаря ТРАНСТЕКСТУ удалось предотвратить одну из самых изощренных террористических акций, с которыми приходилось сталкиваться агентству. Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием Шервудский лес.
Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) belongs to the Leguminosae family . The oil extracted from its seeds is rich in eicosanoic fatty acids such as.
Тогда почему бы не вызвать службу безопасности, которая могла бы его задержать. - Пока рано, - сказал Стратмор. - Если служба безопасности обнаружит затянувшуюся надолго работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, перед нами возникнет целый ряд новых проблем. Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой.
- Стратмор остановился и повернулся к Сьюзан. - Он сказал, что на кольце были выгравированы какие-то буквы. - Буквы. - Да, если верить ему - не английские. - Стратмор приподнял брови, точно ждал объяснений.
Сьюзан задумалась. Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что. Она достаточно хорошо знала Танкадо и знала, что он боготворил простоту. Его доказательства, его программы всегда отличали кристальная ясность и законченность. Необходимость убрать пробелы показалась ей странной. Это была мелочь, но все же изъян, отсутствие чистоты - не этого она ожидала от Танкадо, наносящего свой коронный удар. - Тут что-то не так, - наконец сказала .
Беккера охватила паника.
Телефонистка, державшая трубку у уха, мгновенно поднялась и поклонилась, увидев босса. - Садитесь! - рявкнул Нуматака. Она опустилась на стул.
Наверное, родители отправили ее сюда по какой-то школьной образовательной программе, снабдив кредитной карточкой Виза, а все кончилось тем, что она посреди ночи вкалывает себе в туалете наркотик. - Вы себя хорошо чувствуете? - спросил он, пятясь к двери. - Нормально, - высокомерно бросила. - А тебе здесь делать нечего.
Господи Иисусе. - Морант закашлялся. - Давайте попробуем кандзи. И словно по волшебству все встало на свое место.
Бринкерхофф уже пожалел, что не дал ей спокойно уйти домой. Телефонный разговор со Стратмором взбесил. После истории с Попрыгунчиком всякий раз, когда Мидж казалось, что происходит что-то подозрительное, она сразу же превращалась из кокетки в дьявола, и, пока не выясняла все досконально, ничто не могло ее остановить.
For determine purity of extracted readily to the ocular surface for prolonged periods and tamarind polysaccharide tests for alkaloids, proteins.Polixena M. 24.03.2021 at 03:22
To browse Academia.Ebony G. 29.03.2021 at 21:35
Submit Manuscript.Gaspar G. 31.03.2021 at 14:55
materials. Antioxidative activity of tamarind seeds was investigated. An ethanol extract prepared from the seed coat contained antioxidative.