File Name: nietzsche and zen self overcoming without a self writer.zip
It examines his idea of the three fields of awareness: consciousness, beneath it nihility, and at bottom emptiness. Existence on the field of consciousness is too superficial to make for a fulfilling life.
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It examines his idea of the three fields of awareness: consciousness, beneath it nihility, and at bottom emptiness. Existence on the field of consciousness is too superficial to make for a fulfilling life. Drawing from Nietzsche and Heidegger, as well as from the Zen tradition, Nishitani outlines the field of nihility as a place of death rather than life and argues that if we can endure facing our finitude there will come a turn to the deeper field, of emptiness.
Keywords: Nishitani , Nietzsche , Heidegger , consciousness , death , emptiness , nihilism , nihility , zazen , Zen. My life as a young man can be described in a single phrase: it was a period absolutely without hope.
My life at the time lay entirely in the grips of nihility and despair. My decision, then, to study philosophy was in fact—melodramatic as it might sound—a matter of life and death.
Insofar as existing on the field of emptiness offers us, on the Buddhist view, the most enlightened life, this death-life perspective enables us to understand and live life to the fullest.
The claim that Western philosophy has generally failed to explore two significant fields of human existence is well worth pondering because this failure impoverishes our p. Chinese Daoist philosophy understands life and death as interdependent and complementary phenomena, alternating phases in the constant transformations between yang and yin. The Daodejing remarks that ordinary people overlook this, ignoring death because of their preoccupation with life and its largess:.
The interdependence of life and death is also a prominent theme in the Inner Chapters of the Zhuangzi. How do I know that delighting in life is not a delusion? How do I know that in hating death I am not like an orphan who left home in youth and no longer knows the way back? Central to Buddhist philosophy is the notion of impermanence Skt. Through causes and conditions, the human body. Keep the eyes open and breathe gently through the nose.
Having adjusted your body in this manner, take a breath and exhale fully, then sway your body to left and right. Having received a human life, do not waste the passing moments. Human life is like a flash of lightning, transient and illusory, gone in a moment. In sitting zazen, one comes to experience the parallels between the rising and falling of the breath, the arising and subsiding of thoughts, and the continual birth and death of human existence along with the arising and perishing of all things.
The moments between, the still turning points between exhalation and inhalation, highlight the utter contingency of the breath in its rise and fall, until its inevitable final fall: the lack of necessary connection between exhalation and the next breath, which may always be the last.
Only when you realise this are you free from birth and death. We find a similar idea, framed in terms of a process of departure and return, in the writings of another major influence on Nishitani, the Rinzai Zen master Hakuin Ekaku — But here, too, it is doubtful whether. Precisely because we face things on a field separated from things, and to the extent that we do so, we are forever separated from ourselves. Most of us, it seems, spend most of our time on the field of consciousness and can get all the way to the grave without ever becoming aware of the fields Nishitani says exist beneath it.
Well, it may not matter at all. Then, of course, it will be too late. Nishitani engages this issue through discussions of Schopenhauer and Kierkegaard. For all our pursuit of happiness, at the moment when our life comes to its end in death, it is all one and the same einerlei whether our life has been happy or unhappy. This is how Schopenhauer sees the nullity of existence grounded in the will to life.
But human beings have always found ways to get around this preposterous situation:. Beginning from the basic necessities of clothing and food, life is filled with urgent matters to attend to, and from these some kind of meaning is given to life.
Having lost its inherent meaning, life is thereby restructured from a transcendent ground and given a purpose. But finally, in time of crisis when even religion, metaphysics, and morality are perceived as null, life becomes fundamentally void and boring. Pantheism ordinarily implies the quality of fullness; with boredom it is the reverse: it is built upon emptiness, but for this very reason it is a pantheistic qualification.
Boredom rests upon the nothing that interlaces existence; its dizziness is infinite, like that which comes from looking down into a bottomless abyss. The field of consciousness can also be broken through by an external event, by some kind of stroke of fate—again something that befalls us rather than something we will.
As Nishitani writes in Religion and Nothingness :. Take, for example, someone for whom life has become meaningless as a result of the loss of a loved one, or the failure of an undertaking on which he had staked his all. All those things that had once been of use to him become good for nothing. This same process takes place when one comes face to face with death.
In such a condition, we drop through the field of consciousness and find ourselves in a very different world. At the beginning of Religion and Nothingness , Nishitani formulates the lessons of The Self-Overcoming of Nihilism with considerable power:. When one comes face to face with death. In fact, that abyss is always just underfoot. In the case of death, we do not face something that awaits us in some distant future, but something that we bring into the world with us at the moment we are born.
Our life runs up against death at its every step; we keep one foot planted in the vale of death at all times. Our life stands poised at the brink of the abyss of nihility, to which it may return at any moment. This means that all living things, just as they are, can be seen under the Form of death.
Nietzsche may have been the first to notice how the noisy and exuberant vitality of the modern city actually intimates, to one who has ears to hear, the silence of the grave to which all its citizens are heading.
It gives me a melancholy pleasure to live in the midst of this jumble of little lanes, of needs, of voices: how much enjoyment, impatience, and desire, how much thirsty life and intoxication with life comes to light at every moment! And yet for all these clamorous, lively, life-thirsty people it will soon be so silent!
And behind each one of them his shadow stands, as his dark fellow traveller! It is always as in the last moment before the departure of an emigrant ship: there is more to say than ever before, the hour is at hand, and the ocean with its desolate silence is waiting impatiently behind all this noise—so covetous and certain of its prey.
The clamorous exuberance of the modern city, where desires and lust for life continually gush to the surface, is at a deeper level a defensive, nihilistic reaction against the silent imminence of death. Nietzsche liked to spend time in the spectacular Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno, on the outskirts of Genoa, a place where community ties to the dead remain close. The aphorism continues:. And each and every one of them supposes that the heretofore means little or nothing, and that the near future is everything: hence this haste, this clamour, this drowning out and overreaching of each other.
Everyone wants to be the first in this future—and yet it is death and deathly silence that are alone certain and common to all in this future! How strange that this sole certainty and commonality does almost nothing for people, and that they are farthest removed from feeling that they form a brotherhood of death. Life is full of uncertainty, but the one certainty we have in common we pretend to ignore: that the mortality rate for being human holds steady at exactly percent.
Acknowledging this certainty could do much for us, instead of almost nothing, by way of enriching our lives, but our failure to realize the presence of the future unravels the frail fabric of human fraternity.
A hundred years hence, not one of the people now walking the Ginza will be alive, neither the young nor the old, the men nor the women. We can look at the living as they walk full of health down the Ginza and see, in double exposure, a picture of the dead.
This kind of double exposure is true vision of reality. The aspect of life and the aspect of death are equally real, and reality is that which appears now as life and now as death.
I shall not say that one should love death; but one should love life with such magnanimity, and without calculating exceptions, that one involuntarily always includes death as the averted half of life and loves it along with life. It is thinkable that death stands infinitely nearer to us than life itself.
This view sees matter, in its usual state, as subject to conditions that could never serve as an environment for living beings for example, in conditions of extremely high or extremely low temperatures. The range of the possibility of existence for living beings is like a single dot surrounded by a vast realm of impossibility: one step out of that range and life would immediately perish.
Thus, to this way of thinking, the universe in its usual state constitutes a world of death for living beings. The living is only a species of the dead, and a very rare species at that. Nishitani then turns, characteristically, to the existential counterpart to the natural scientific account of our situation, which he again presents in a cosmic context:. The field where man has his being is his teleological dwelling place; it is the place where he has his life with a conscious purpose as a rational being.
And yet this is disclosed as a field merely floating for a brief moment within a boundless, endless, and meaningless world governed by mechanical laws in the broad sense of the term and devoid of any telos.
Our human life is established on the base of an abyss of death. Seen from this standpoint, this world as it is—with the sun, the moon, and the numerous stars, with mountains, rivers, trees, and flowers—is, as such, the world ablaze in an all-consuming cosmic conflagration. The end of the world is an actuality here and now; it is a fact and a destiny at work directly underfoot.
All things appear isolated from one another by an abyss. Each thing has its being as a one-and-only, a solitariness absolutely shut up within itself. On the field of nihility all nexus and unity is broken down and the self-enclosure of things is absolute.
All things that are scatter apart from one another endlessly. It is thus not a place where one can function normally, because the abysses and scattering have a paralyzing effect. Seen essentially, that is, as existing in nihility and as manifest in nihility, everything and everyone is nameless, unnamable, and unknowable. Now the reality of this nihility is covered over in an everyday world, which is in its proper element when it traffics in names.
If the idea is to be open to the field of nihility as the way to emptiness, one might wish that Nishitani had described it more fully. Western philosophers who talk about confronting the abyss, like Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger, also offer minimal description of the experience. I could no longer grasp them with the simplifying gaze of habit.
Everything came to pieces, the pieces broke into more pieces, and nothing could be encompassed by one idea. Isolated words swam about me; they turned into eyes that stared at me and into which I had to stare back, dizzying whirlpools that spun around and around and led into the void.
These mute and sometimes inanimate beings rise up before me with such a plenitude, such a presence of love, that my joyful eye finds nothing dead anywhere. Everything seems to mean something.
I feel a blissful and utterly eternal interplay in me and around me, and amid the to-and-fro there is nothing into which I cannot merge. Then it is as if. This could be a description of the turn from the field of nihility to the field of emptiness, which now allows the author to get, from the heart, to the heart of things. Or else take a step. The self-overcoming of nihilism thus involves staying with the meaninglessness, the Great Doubt, and Death, hanging in there until the turn comes that opens up the field of emptiness.
The study of nihilism may regard it as merely a label that has been applied to various separate philosophies,  or as a distinct historical concept arising out of nominalism , skepticism , and philosophical pessimism , as well as possibly out of Christianity itself. The term is sometimes used in association with anomie to explain the general mood of despair at a perceived pointlessness of existence or arbitrariness of human principles and social institutions. Nihilism has also been described as conspicuous in or constitutive of certain historical periods. For example,  Jean Baudrillard   and others have characterized postmodernity as a nihilistic epoch  or mode of thought. Nihilism has, however, been widely ascribed to both religious and irreligious viewpoints.
Nietzsche and Zen, Self-overcoming without a Self, van der for research and writing through their financial support. Chairman Duncan Large suggests that Ecce Homo can be read as an instruction manual for “how to.
In Cooperation with the WCC. Since the s Buddhists and Christians have entered into serious dialogical relations in various places around the world. At this conference we will inquire into the transformation triggered by dialogical encounter.
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The subsequent "feelings of revenge and resentment" embittered him:. The overman does not follow the morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but rises above the notion of good and evil and above the "herd". Nietzsche According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether it could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought. While at Basel, Nietzsche lectured on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. Elsner, Gary. You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche predicted a European collapse  This view has acquired the name perspectivism.
In doing so, he reveals Nietzsches thought as a philosophy of continuous self-overcoming, in which even the notion of self has been overcome. Van der Braak begins by analyzing Nietzsches relationship to Buddhism and status as a transcultural thinker, recalling research on Nietzsche and Zen to date and setting out the basic argument of the study. He continues by examining the practices of self-overcoming in Nietzsche and Zen, comparing Nietzsches radical skepticism with that of Nagarjuna and comparing Nietzsches approach to truth to Linjis. Nietzsches methods of self-overcoming are compared to Dogens zazen, or sitting meditation practice, and Dogens notion of forgetting the self. These comparisons and others build van der Braaks case for a criticism of Nietzsche informed by the ideas of Zen Buddhism and a criticism of Zen Buddhism seen through the Western lens of Nietzsche - coalescing into one world philosophy. This treatment, focusing on one of the most fruitful areas of research within contemporary comparative and intercultural philosophy, will be useful to Nietzsche scholars, continental philosophers, and comparative philosophers.
- Так к чему ты клонишь. - Я думаю, что Стратмор сегодня воспользовался этим переключателем… для работы над файлом, который отвергла программа Сквозь строй. - Ну и. Для того и предназначен этот переключатель, верно. Мидж покачала головой. - Только если файл не заражен вирусом.
Чтобы скрыть свою маленькую тайну. Стратмор сохранял спокойствие. - И что же это за секрет. - Вы отлично знаете это. Это Цифровая крепость.
Хиросима, 6 августа 1945 года, 8. 15 утра. Акт безжалостного уничтожения. Бесчувственная демонстрация силы страной, уже добившейся победы.
Сорокадвухлетний португальский наемник был одним из лучших профессионалов, находящихся в его распоряжении. Он уже много лет работал на АНБ. Родившийся и выросший в Лиссабоне, он выполнял задания агентства по всей Европе. Его ни разу не удалось разоблачить, указав на Форт- Мид. Единственная беда - Халохот глухой, с ним нельзя связаться по телефону.
This article represents a study of F.Wildcountry123 30.03.2021 at 23:04
Nietzsche and Zen Nietzsche and Zen Self-overcoming without a Self André van I am very grateful to them for providing time for research and writing through.