File Name: electronics aptitude questions and answers .zip
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The study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles. Communication means transferring a signal from the transmitter which passes through a medium then the output is obtained at the receiver. Analog and digital communication. As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal the human voice and translating it into electronic pulses.
Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented by a series of "1"s and "0"s. Digital signals are immune to noise, quality of transmission and reception is good, components used in digital communication can be produced with high precision and power consumption is also very less when compared with analog signals.
The process of obtaining a set of samples from a continuous function of time x t is referred to as sampling. It states that, while taking the samples of a continuous signal, it has to be taken care that the sampling rate is equal to or greater than twice the cut off frequency and the minimum sampling rate is known as the Nyquist rate.
Passband is the range of frequencies or wavelengths that can pass through a filter without being attenuated. A stopband is a band of frequencies, between specified limits, in which a circuit, such as a filter or telephone circuit, does not let signals through, or the attenuation is above the required stopband attenuation level.
This range corresponds to frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, RF usually refers to oscillations in electrical circuits or electromagnetic radiation.
Modulation is the process of varying some characteristic of a periodic wave with an external signals. Radio communication superimposes this information bearing signal onto a carrier signal. These high frequency carrier signals can be transmitted over the air easily and are capable of travelling long distances. The characteristics amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier signal are varied in accordance with the information bearing signal.
Modulation is utilized to send an information bearing signal over long distances. Demodulation is the act of removing the modulation from an analog signal to get the original baseband signal back. Demodulating is necessary because the receiver system receives a modulated signal with specific characteristics and it needs to turn it to base-band. AM-Amplitude modulation is a type of modulation where the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the information bearing signal.
FM-Frequency modulation is a type of modulation where the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the information bearing signal. AM is used for video signals for example TV.
Ranges from to kHz. FM is used for audio signals for example Radio. Ranges from 88 to MHz. The life span of the satellite is about 15 years. An electronic device or electrical circuit that is used to boost amplify the power, voltage or current of an applied signal. An oscillator is a circuit that creates a waveform output from a direct current input.
The two main types of oscillator are harmonic and relaxation. The harmonic oscillators have smooth curved waveforms, while relaxation oscillators have waveforms with sharp changes. An integrated circuit IC ,also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip.
Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. Crosstalk is a form of interference caused by signals in nearby conductors. The most common example is hearing an unwanted conversation on the telephone. Crosstalk can also occur in radios, televisions, networking equipment, and even electric guitars. What is inductor? An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. An inductor can take many forms.
A substance, body, or device that readily conducts heat, electricity, sound, etc. Copper is a good conductor of electricity. A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator An Insulator is a material that resists the flow of electric current. It is an object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing current through itself ; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically.
In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional current property. In electronics, a transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals.
The transistor is the fundamental building block of computers, and all other modern electronic devices. Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits. An operational amplifier, often called an op-amp , is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and, usually, a single output. Typically the output of the op-amp is controlled either by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain and oscillation.
Feedback is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is passed fed back to the input. This is often used to control the dynamic behaviour of the system. Much attention has been given by researchers to negative feedback processes, because negative feedback processes lead systems towards equilibrium states. Positive feedback reinforces a given tendency of a system and can lead a system away from equilibrium states, possibly causing quite unexpected results. Barkhausen criteria, without which you will not know which conditions, are to be satisfied for oscillations.
The condition of unity loop gain -A? This condition implies that A? Code division multiple access CDMA is a channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies.
CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme where each transmitter is assigned a code to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. An analogy to the problem of multiple access is a room channel in which people wish to communicate with each other. To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking time division ,speak at different pitches frequency division ,or speak in different directions spatial division.
In CDMA, they would speak different languages. People speaking the same language can understand each other, but not other people. Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code.
Many codes occupy the same channel, but only users associated with a particular code can understand each other. Types of feedback: Negative feedback: This tends to reduce output but in amplifiers, stabilizes and linearizes operation.
Negative feedback feeds part of a system's output, inverted, into the system's input; generally with the result that fluctuations are attenuated. Positive feedback: This tends to increase output. Positive feedback, sometimes referred to as "cumulative causation", is a feedback loop system in which the system responds to perturbation A perturbation means a system, is an alteration of function, induced by external or internal mechanisms in the same direction as the perturbation.
In contrast, a system that responds to the perturbation in the opposite direction is called a negative feedback system. Bipolar feedback: which can either increase or decrease output. What is Instrumentation Amplifier IA and what are all the advantages? An instrumentation amplifier is a differential op-amp circuit providing high input impedances with ease of gain adjustment by varying a single resistor. The equivalent circuit of all the components of the power system are drawn and they are interconnected is called impedance diagram.
What is the need for load flow study. The load flow study of a power system is essential to decide the best operation existing system and for planning the future expansion of the system.
It is also essential for designing the power system. The components of power system may operate at different voltage and power levels. It will be convenient for analysis of power system if the voltage, power, current ratings of the components of the power system is expressed with referance to a common value called base value.
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A set of Basic Electronics Questions and Answers. The article includes questions on Semiconductors, Transistors, OP-Amps, Amplifiers, and many more.
By practicing Electronics and Communication Engineering Objective Questions and Answers an individual for competitive exams, entrance exams, and interviews. Questions have practical as well as theoretical approach and discussion in forum option is good for explanations so that one can understand them easily and conceptually. Practice daily for good results and to learn and master various Electronics and Communication Engineering subjects. Here are the benefits of our Electronics and Communication Engineering Objective Questions and answer.
Number of 1's in input may be more than one but the output will always be 1 in OR gate. So the answer is 'C'. This is the equation of OR gate.
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