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Main article: Neuro-linguistic programming Bandler helped Robert Spitzer edit The Gestalt Approach based on a manuscript by gestalt therapist Fritz Perls who had died in He also assisted with checking transcripts for Eye Witness to Therapy John Grinder , a professor at the University, said to Bandler that he could explain almost all of the questions and comments Bandler made using transformational grammar.
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This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? Email Address:. Neuro-linguistic programming NLP is an approach to communication , personal development , and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California , United States in the s.
Its creators claim a connection between the neurological processes "neuro" , language "linguistic" and behavioral patterns learned through experience "programming" and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life. Bandler and Grinder claim that NLP methodology can "model" the skills of exceptional people, then those skills can be acquired by anyone. The balance of scientific evidence reveals NLP to be a largely discredited pseudoscience.
According to Bandler and Grinder, NLP comprises a methodology termed modeling and a set of techniques that were derived from its initial applications by Bandler and Grinder. Bandler and Grinder say that they modeled Virginia Satir, to produce what they termed the Meta-Model via their process of modeling , a model for gathering information and challenging a client's language and underlying thinking. Other than Satir, the people they cite as influences did not collaborate with Bandler or Grinder.
Chomsky himself has no association with NLP whatsoever; his original work was intended as theory, not therapy. Stollznow writes, "[o]ther than borrowing terminology, NLP does not bear authentic resemblance to any of Chomsky's theories or philosophies —- linguistic, cognitive or political. More recently circa , Bandler has claimed, "NLP is based on finding out what works and formalizing it. In order to formalize patterns I utilized everything from linguistics to holography The models that constitute NLP are all formal models based on mathematical, logical principles such as predicate calculus and the mathematical equations underlying holography.
On the matter of the development of NLP, Grinder recollects: . The philosopher Robert Todd Carroll responded that Grinder has not understood Kuhn 's text on the history and philosophy of science, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Carroll replies: a individual scientists never have nor are they ever able to create paradigm shifts volitionally and Kuhn does not suggest otherwise; b Kuhn's text does not contain the idea that being unqualified in a field of science is a prerequisite to producing a result that necessitates a paradigm shift in that field and c The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is foremost a work of history and not an instructive text on creating paradigm shifts and such a text is not possible—extraordinary discovery is not a formulaic procedure.
Carroll explains that a paradigm shift is not a planned activity, rather it is an outcome of scientific effort within the current dominant paradigm that produces data that can't be adequately accounted for within the current paradigm—hence a paradigm shift , i. In developing NLP Bandler and Grinder were not responding to a paradigmatic crisis in psychology nor did they produce any data that caused a paradigmatic crisis in psychology.
There is no sense in which Bandler and Grinder caused or participated in a paradigm shift. Nothing," argues Carroll. By the late s, the human potential movement had developed into an industry and provided a market for some NLP ideas.
Perls had led numerous Gestalt therapy seminars at Esalen. Satir was an early leader and Bateson was a guest teacher. Bandler and Grinder claimed that in addition to being a therapeutic method, NLP was also a study of communication and began marketing it as a business tool, claiming that, "if any human being can do anything, so can you.
A community of psychotherapists and students began to form around Bandler and Grinder's initial works, leading to the growth and spread of NLP as a theory and practice. Tomasz Witkowski attributes this to a declining interest in the debate as the result of a lack of empirical support for NLP from its proponents.
NLP can be understood in terms of three broad components and the central concepts pertaining to those:. According to one study by Steinbach,  a classic interaction in NLP can be understood in terms of several major stages including establishing rapport, gleaning information about a problem mental state and desired goals, using specific tools and techniques to make interventions, and integrating proposed changes into the client's life.
The entire process is guided by the non-verbal responses of the client. Once rapport is established, the practitioner may gather information e.
The practitioner pays particular attention to the verbal and non-verbal responses as the client defines the present state and desired state and any "resources" that may be required to bridge the gap. According to Stollznow , "NLP also involves fringe discourse analysis and "practical" guidelines for "improved" communication. For example, one text asserts "when you adopt the "but" word, people will remember what you said afterwards. With the "and" word, people remember what you said before and after.
Early books about NLP had a psychotherapeutic focus given that the early models were psychotherapists. As an approach to psychotherapy, NLP shares similar core assumptions and foundations in common with some contemporary brief and systemic practices,    such as solution focused brief therapy.
The two main therapeutic uses of NLP are: 1 as an adjunct by therapists  practicing in other therapeutic disciplines; 2 as a specific therapy called Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy  which is recognized by the Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy and Counselling Association.
According to Stollznow "Bandler and Grinder's infamous Frogs into Princes and their other books boast that NLP is a cure-all that treats a broad range of physical and mental conditions and learning difficulties, including epilepsy, myopia and dyslexia.
Unfortunately, NLP appears to be the first in a long line of mass marketing seminars that purport to virtually cure any mental disorder What remains is a mass-marketed serving of psychopablum. Ten years should have been sufficient time for this to happen. In this light, I cannot take NLP seriously Patterns I and II are poorly written works that were an overambitious, pretentious effort to reduce hypnotism to a magic of words.
Rowling as three examples of unambiguous acknowledged personal failure that served as an impetus to great success. Briers contends that adherence to the maxim leads to self-deprecation. According to Briers, personal endeavour is a product of invested values and aspirations and the dismissal of personally significant failure as mere feedback effectively denigrates what one values. Briers writes, "Sometimes we need to accept and mourn the death of our dreams, not just casually dismiss them as inconsequential.
NLP's reframe casts us into the role of a widower avoiding the pain of grief by leap-frogging into a rebound relationship with a younger woman, never pausing to say a proper goodbye to his dead wife. Although the original core techniques of NLP were therapeutic in orientation their genericity enabled them to be applied to other fields. These applications include persuasion ,  sales,  negotiation,  management training,  sports,  teaching, coaching, team building, and public speaking.
In the early s, NLP was advertised as an important advance in psychotherapy and counseling, and attracted some interest in counseling research and clinical psychology. However, as controlled trials failed to show any benefit from NLP and its advocates made increasingly dubious claims, scientific interest in NLP faded. Langford categorizes NLP as a form of folk magic ; that is to say, a practice with symbolic efficacy —as opposed to physical efficacy—that is able to effect change through nonspecific effects e.
To Langford, NLP is akin to a syncretic folk religion "that attempts to wed the magic of folk practice to the science of professional medicine". Several ideas and techniques have been borrowed from Castaneda and incorporated into NLP including so-called double induction  and the notion of "stopping the world"  which is central to NLP modeling.
Tye  characterizes NLP as a type of "psycho shamanism". Fanthorpe and Fanthorpe  see a similarity between the mimetic procedure and intent of NLP modeling and aspects of ritual in some syncretic religions. Hunt  draws a comparison between the concern with lineage from an NLP guru —which is evident amongst some NLP proponents—and the concern with guru lineage in some Eastern religions.
In the world's monotheistic faiths, argues Bovbjerg, the purpose of religious practice is communion and fellowship with a transcendent 'other', i. With the New Age psycho-religions, argues Bovbjerg, this orientation towards a transcendent 'other' persists but the other has become "the other in our selves", the so-called unconscious : "[t]he individual's inner life becomes the intangible focus of [psycho-]religious practices and the subconscious becomes a constituent part of modern individuals' understanding of the Self.
According to Bovbjerg the notion that we have an unconscious self underlies many NLP techniques either explicitly or implicitly. Bovbjerg argues, "[t]hrough particular practices, the [NLP practitioner qua ] psycho-religious practitioner expects to achieve self-perfection in a never-ending transformation of the self.
The belief that human beings can change themselves by calling upon the power or god within or their own infinite human potential is a contradiction of the Christian view. The Bible says man is a sinner and is saved by God's grace alone. By the end of , the collaboration between Bandler and Grinder ended. On 29 October , judgement was made in favor of Bandler.
In July and January , Bandler instituted a further two civil actions against Grinder and his company, numerous other prominent figures in NLP and further initially unnamed persons. Bandler alleged that Grinder had violated the terms of the settlement agreement reached in the initial case and had suffered commercial damage as a result of the allegedly illegal commercial activities of the defendants.
On this matter Stollznow  comments, "[i]ronically, Bandler and Grinder feuded in the s over trademark and theory disputes. Tellingly, none of their myriad of NLP models, pillars, and principles helped these founders to resolve their personal and professional conflicts. The Court found in favor of Clarkson; Bandler's trademark was subsequently revoked. By the end of , Bandler and Grinder entered a release where they agreed, amongst other things, that "they are the co-creators and co-founders of the technology of Neuro-linguistic Programming" and "mutually agree to refrain from disparaging each other's efforts, in any fashion, concerning their respective involvement in the field of NeuroLinguistic Programming.
As a consequence of these disputes and settlements, the names NLP and Neuro-linguistic Programming are not owned by any party and there is no restriction on any party offering NLP certification.
The names NLP and Neuro-linguistic Programming are not owned by any person or organisation, they are not trademarked intellectual property   and there is no central regulating authority for NLP instruction and certification.
There is great variation in the depth and breadth of training and standards of practitioners, and some disagreement between those in the field about which patterns are, or are not, actual NLP. With different authors, individual trainers and practitioners having developed their own methods, concepts and labels, often branding them as NLP,  the training standards and quality differ greatly.
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The six directions represent "visual construct", "visual recall", "auditory construct", "auditory recall", " kinesthetic " and "auditory internal dialogue". Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications. Science and Behavior Books Inc. Whispering In The Wind. Time for a Change. Meta Pubns. What is NLP? Promotional video. Australia: Inspiritive. Retrieved 1 June
NLP is a way to develop physical strategies that combine aspects of behavioural psychology, linguistics, hypnosis, modelling and common sense. NLP is a powerful vehicle for personal and business change, used by many thousands of people around the world. It is getting more and more popular every year. It's about exploring attitudes that lead to success, modelling top performers, and integrating the resulting techniques into your business and personal lives. A success strategy for life and business.
Richard Wayne Bandler born February 24, is an American author and trainer in the field of self-help. He is best known as the co-creator of with John Grinder Neuro-linguistic programming NLP , the study of successful behaviors and the thoughts that produce them. Bandler was born in Teaneck, New Jersey , where he spent the first five years of his life before moving to California and various other places where his parents shifted. He has stated in early life he had been beaten so every bone in his body was broken. After his parents separated, he moved with his mother and stayed mostly in and around San Francisco.
I have been studying education, therapies, growth experiences, and other methods for personal change since I was a graduate student with Abe Maslow over twenty years ago. Ten years later I met Fritz Perls and immersed myself in gestalt therapy because it seemed to be more effective than most other methods. Actually all methods work for some people and with some problems. Most methods claim much more than they can deliver, and most theories have little relationship to the methods they describe.
Using your Brain for a change. Bibliography: p. Includes index. Neurolinguistic programming. Andreas, Steve.
Соши начала просматривать документ. Ей попалось описание нитрата мочевины, в десять раз более мощной взрывчатки, чем динамит. Инструкция по ее изготовлению была проста, как рецепт приготовления жженого сахара. - Плутоний и уран, - повторял Джабба. - Переходите к главному.
Но, сэр, мутация… - Немедленно! - крикнул Стратмор. Чатрукьян некоторое время смотрел на него, лишившись дара речи, а потом бегом направился прочь из шифровалки. Стратмор повернулся и с удивлением увидел Хейла. Сьюзан поняла, в чем дело: все это время Хейл вел себя тихо, подозрительно тихо, поскольку отлично знал, что нет такой диагностики, в которой использовалась бы цепная мутация, тем более такая, которая занимала ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже восемнадцать часов. Хейл не проронил ни слова.
Он стал лучшим программистом корпуса, и перед ним замаячила перспектива отличной военной карьеры. Но за два дня до окончания третьего боевого дежурства в его будущем произошел резкий зигзаг. В пьяной драке Хейл случайно убил сослуживца.
Ненависть в его сердце уступила место преданности Будде. Еще через четыре месяца Энсей Танкадо приступил к работе в Отделении криптографии Агентства национальной безопасности США. Несмотря на солидный заработок, Танкадо ездил на службу на стареньком мопеде и обедал в одиночестве за своим рабочим столом, вместо того чтобы вместе с сослуживцами поглощать котлеты из телятины и луковый суп с картофелем - фирменные блюда местной столовой. Энсей пользовался всеобщим уважением, работал творчески, с блеском, что дано немногим. Он был добрым и честным, выдержанным и безукоризненным в общении.
Сотрудникам службы безопасности платили за их техническое мастерство… а также за чутье. Действуй, объясняться будешь. Чатрукьян знал, что ему делать. Знал он и то, что, когда пыль осядет, он либо станет героем АНБ, либо пополнит ряды тех, кто ищет работу. В огромной дешифровальной машине завелся вирус - в этом он был абсолютно уверен.
Что же тогда случилось? - спросил Фонтейн.
Могли сбой произойти внезапно, сам по. Размышляя об этом, Сьюзан вдруг вспомнила фразу, сказанную Стратмором: Я попытался запустить Следопыта самостоятельно, но информация, которую он выдал, оказалась бессмысленной. Сьюзан задумалась над этими словами.
Кого? - спросил он чуть осипшим голосом. - Кармен. Ту, что работает в столовой. Бринкерхофф почувствовал, как его лицо заливается краской.
Мидж злорадно подмигнула. - Никогда не забывай, Чед, что Большой Брат знает. Большой Брат.
Джабба взглянул на часы. - Странное? - Он начал беспокоиться.
Поверь. Поэтому я и узнал о его намерении модифицировать Цифровую крепость. Я читал все его мозговые штурмы. Мозговые штурмы. Сьюзан замолчала.
Все, что относится к его переписке с Танкадо, где упоминается Цифровая крепость. - Хорошо, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь сосредоточиться, - я сотру весь накопитель Хейла. И все переформатирую. - Нет! - жестко парировал Стратмор. - Не делай .
Sientate! - услышал он крик водителя. - Сядьте. Однако Беккер был слишком ошеломлен, чтобы понять смысл этих слов. - Sientate! - снова крикнул водитель.
Двухцветный застыл на месте и зашелся в истерическом хохоте.