File Name: relationship between religion and morality .zip
Morality and religion involves the relationship between religious views and morals. Many [ quantify ] religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.
Many religious systems share tenets with secular value-frameworks such as consequentialism , freethought , and utilitarianism. Religion and morality are not synonymous. Morality does not necessarily depend upon religion, despite some making "an almost automatic assumption" to this effect. Conceptually and in principle, morality and a religious value system are two distinct kinds of value systems or action guides.
One definition sees morality as an active process which is, "at the very least, the effort to guide one's conduct by reason, that is, doing what there are the best reasons for doing, while giving equal consideration to the interests of all those affected by what one does.
Value judgments can vary greatly between the teachings of various religions, past and present. People in some religious traditions, such as Christianity , may derive ideas of right and wrong from the rules and laws set forth in their respective authoritative guides and by their religious leaders.
Studies conducted in recent years have explored these relationships, but the results have been mixed and sometimes contradictory. Religious commentators have asserted that one cannot lead a moral life without an absolute lawgiver as a guide. Within the wide range of ethical traditions, religious traditions co-exist with secular value frameworks such as humanism , utilitarianism , and others.
There are many types of religious values. Modern monotheistic religions, such as Islam , Judaism , Christianity and to a certain degree others such as Sikhism define right and wrong by the laws and rules set forth by their respective gods and as interpreted by religious leaders within the respective faith. Polytheistic religious traditions tend to be less absolute. For example, within Buddhism , the intention of the individual and the circumstances play roles in determining whether an action is right or wrong.
For modern Westerners, who have been raised on ideals of universality and egalitarianism, this relativity of values and obligations is the aspect of Hinduism most difficult to understand. According to Stephen Gaukroger : "It was generally assumed in the 17th century that religion provided the unique basis for morality, and that without religion, there could be no morality.
In , Pierre Bayle asserted that religion "is neither necessary nor sufficient for morality". For many religious people, morality and religion are the same or inseparable; for them either morality is part of religion or their religion is their morality. For others, especially for nonreligious people, morality and religion are distinct and separable; religion may be immoral or nonmoral, and morality may or should be nonreligious.
Even for some religious people the two are different and separable; they may hold that religion should be moral and morality should be, but they agree that they may not be. Richard Paula and Linda Elder of the Foundation for Critical Thinking assert that, "Most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs, and the law.
The proper role of ethical reasoning is to highlight acts of two kinds: those which enhance the well-being of others—that warrant our praise—and those that harm or diminish the well-being of others—and thus warrant our criticism. They note problems that could arise if religions defined ethics, such as: . They further note that various documents, such as the UN Declaration of Human Rights lay out "transcultural" and "trans-religious" ethical concepts and principles—such as slavery, genocide, torture, sexism, racism, murder, assault, fraud, deceit, and intimidation—which require no reliance on religion or social convention for us to understand they are "ethically wrong".
Armin Geertz suggests that "the age-old assumption that religion produces morals and values is neither the only, nor the most parsimonious, hypothesis for religion". Religions provide different ways of dealing with moral dilemmas. For example, there is no absolute prohibition on killing in Hinduism , which recognizes that it "may be inevitable and indeed necessary" in certain circumstances.
In the latter case, a study by the Barna Group found that some denominations have a significantly higher divorce rate than those in non-religious demographic groups atheists and agnostics. According to Thomas Dixon, "Many today The study of religion and morality is contentious due to conceptual differences. The ethnocentric views on morality, failure to distinguish between in group and out group altruism, and inconsistent definition of religiosity all contribute to conflicting findings.
Furthermore, some studies have shown that religious prosociality is primarily motivated by wanting to appear prosocial, which may be related to the desire to further ones religious group. The egoistically motivated prosociality may also affect self-reports, resulting in biased results. Peer ratings can be biased by stereotypes, and indications of a persons group affiliation are sufficient to bias reporting.
In line with other findings suggesting that religious humanitarianism is largely directed at in-group members, greater religious identification, greater extrinsic religiosity and greater religious fundamentalism were associated with racial prejudice. According to global research done by Gallup on people from countries, adherents of all the major world religions who attended religious services in the past week reported higher rates of generosity such as donating money, volunteering, and helping a stranger than do their coreligionists who did not attend services non-attenders.
Even for people who were nonreligious, those who said they attended religious services in the past week exhibited more generous behaviors. One study on pro-social sentiments showed that non-religious people were more inclined to show generosity in random acts of kindness, such as lending their possessions and offering a seat on a crowded bus or train. Religious people were less inclined when it came to seeing how much compassion motivated participants to be charitable in other ways, such as in giving money or food to a homeless person and to non-believers.
A study found that religious people were more charitable than their irreligious counterparts. Some scientific studies show that the degree of religiosity is generally associated with higher ethical attitudes     — for example, surveys suggesting a positive connection between faith and altruism. The overall relationship between faith and crime is unclear. A review of studies on this topic found "The existing evidence surrounding the effect of religion on crime is varied, contested, and inconclusive, and currently no persuasive answer exists as to the empirical relationship between religion and crime.
A study by Gregory S. Paul argues for a positive correlation between the degree of public religiosity in a society and certain measures of dysfunction,  however, an analysis published later in the same journal contends that a number of methodological and theoretical problems undermine any findings or conclusions taken from Paul's research.
Some works indicate that some societies with lower religiosity have lower crime rates—especially violent crime, compared to some societies with higher religiosity. Modern research in criminology also acknowledges an inverse relationship between religion and crime,  with some studies establishing this connection. A Georgia State University study published in the academic journal Theoretical Criminology suggests that religion helps criminals to justify their crimes and might "encourage" it.
Religious values can diverge from commonly-held contemporary moral positions, such as those on murder , mass atrocities, and slavery. For example, Simon Blackburn states that "apologists for Hinduism defend or explain away its involvement with the caste system, and apologists for Islam defend or explain away its harsh penal code or its attitude to women and infidels". Philosopher David Hume stated that, "The greatest crimes have been found, in many instances, to be compatible with a superstitious piety and devotion; Hence it is justly regarded as unsafe to draw any inference in favor of a man's morals, from the fervor or strictness of his religious exercises, even though he himself believe them sincere.
Bertrand Russell said, "There are also, in most religions, specific ethical tenets which do definite harm. The Catholic condemnation of birth control, if it could prevail, would make the mitigation of poverty and the abolition of war impossible. The Hindu beliefs that the cow is a sacred animal and that it is wicked for widows to remarry cause quite needless suffering.
You find this curious fact, that the more intense has been the religion of any period and the more profound has been the dogmatic belief, the greater has been the cruelty and the worse has been the state of affairs You find as you look around the world that every single bit of progress in humane feeling, every improvement in the criminal law, every step toward the diminution of war, every step toward better treatment of the colored races, or every mitigation of slavery, every moral progress that there has been in the world, has been consistently opposed by the organized churches of the world.
According to Paul Copan, Jewish laws in the bible show an evolution of moral standards towards protecting the vulnerable, imposing a death penalty on those pursuing forced slavery and identifying slaves as persons and not property. According to Bertrand Russell, "Clergymen almost necessarily fail in two ways as teachers of morals. They condemn acts which do no harm and they condone acts which do great harm. So long as clergymen continue to condone cruelty and condemn 'innocent' pleasure, they can only do harm as guardians of the morals of the young.
Russell further states that, "The sense of sin which dominates many children and young people and often lasts on into later life is a misery and a source of distortion that serves no useful purpose of any sort or kind. There are number of secular value frameworks, such as consequentialism , freethought , humanism , and utilitarianism. Yet, there have been opposing views about the ability of both religious and secular moral frameworks to provide useful guides to right and wrong actions.
Various non-religious commentators have supported the ability of secular value frameworks to provide useful guides. Bernard Williams argued that, "Either one's motives for following the moral word of God are moral motives, or they are not. If they are, then one is already equipped with moral motivations, and the introduction of God adds nothing extra.
But if they are not moral motives, then they will be motives of such a kind that they cannot appropriately motivate morality at all For example, popular atheist Richard Dawkins , writing in The God Delusion , has stated that religious people have committed a wide variety of acts and held certain beliefs through history that we now consider morally repugnant. He has stated that Adolf Hitler and the Nazis held broadly Christian religious beliefs that inspired the Holocaust on account of antisemitic Christian doctrine, that Christians have traditionally imposed unfair restrictions on the legal and civil rights of women, and that Christians have condoned slavery of some form or description throughout most of Christianity's history.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Secular morality. See also: Secular ethics. All the world's major religions, with their emphasis on love, compassion, patience, tolerance, and forgiveness can and do promote inner values. But the reality of the world today is that grounding ethics in religion is no longer adequate. This is why I am increasingly convinced that the time has come to find a way of thinking about spirituality and ethics beyond religion altogether.
New York: HarperCollins. New York: McGraw-Hill. The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Very Short Introductions. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 February It is the word of Heaven, or the will of a Being greater than ourselves.
The standards of living become known to us by revelation of this Being. Either we take ourselves to perceive the fountainhead directly, or more often we have the benefit of an intermediary - a priest, or a prophet, or a text, or a tradition sufficiently in touch with the divine will to be able to communicate it to us.
Then we know what to do. The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy. Routledge Philosophy Companions. New York: Routledge. Basic Bioethics. The Evolution of Morality. Nor need the hypothesis that morality is innate be undermined by observation of the great variation in moral codes across human communities, for the claim need not be interpreted as holding that morality with some particular content is fixed in human nature.
Columbia University Press. New York: Random House. Objectivity: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
One of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world is to find a moral discourse that can reach all the inhabitants of the earth, but one that preferably causes no violence to the conceptual frameworks of particular religions. If the concepts that are central to moral practice in the world's great religions cannot be thinned into a common set of concepts, the task is impossible. Or it may be impossible for some other reason, perhaps because it is impossible to get a common content to morality that is sufficient for the requirements for life in a pluralistic world. But it is a goal that should not be given up until its impossibility has been demonstrated. A given religion may find that some of its moral teachings are not feasible for interaction with the practitioners of other religions and it may have to revise or abandon them for interaction to be possible, but that is an issue that needs to be addressed within the framework of that religion.
Thomas Swan has a PhD in experimental psychology. He specializes in the cognitive science of religion. All major religions claim we are immoral creatures without the instruction of gods. By Rh via Wikimedia Commons. Many people regard morality as evidence for supernatural intervention in human development.
People often assume that moral and religious convictions are functionally the same thing. But are they? Meta-analytic tests of each of these hypotheses yielded weak support for the secularization hypothesis, no support for the equivalence or political asymmetry hypotheses, and the strongest support for the distinct constructs hypothesis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
PART I - THE STATE OF THE QUESTION. The aim of these articles is to present some considerations on the relation between religion and morality and to draw.
God, Religion, and Morality. Morality has a long association with religion, and on most ethics panel there's a minister. The first thing to understand is the very obvious point that God and religion are not the same; for example, Christ and Christianity are not the same thing. God, if such a being exists, is independent of us, much like the planet Jupiter; religion, by contrast, whatever else it is, is also a human enterprise, and therefore subject to human folly and wickedness.
In the minds of many people, the terms morality and religion signal two related but distinct ideas. Morality is thought to pertain to the conduct of human affairs and relations between persons, while religion primarily involves the relationship between human beings and a transcendent reality. In fact, this distinction between religion and morality is a relatively modern one. Although tension between religion and morality is already evident in the writings of Plato and other Greek philosophers, the popular modern conception that religion and morality are separate phenomena is probably traceable to the Enlightenment. At that time, a number of thinkers, reflecting Europe's weariness with centuries of religious strife, sought to elaborate ethical theories based on reason or on widely shared human sentiments.
Dimitris Xygalatas does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. A study we conducted, led by psychologist Will Gervais , found widespread and extreme moral prejudice against atheists around the world. Across all continents, people assumed that those who committed immoral acts, even extreme ones such as serial murder, were more likely to be atheists.
Никаких ограничений - только свободная информация. Это шанс всей вашей жизни. И вы хотите его упустить. - Следи за мной, - холодно парировал Стратмор. - А как же Сьюзан? - Хейл запнулся.
Кокетка до мозга костей, трижды разведенная, Мидж двигалась по шестикомнатным директорским апартаментам с вызывающей самоуверенностью. Она отличалась острым умом, хорошей интуицией, частенько засиживалась допоздна и, как говорили, знала о внутренних делах АНБ куда больше самого Господа Бога. Черт возьми, - подумал Бринкерхофф, разглядывая ее серое кашемировое платье, - или я старею, или она молодеет. - Еженедельные отчеты. - Мидж улыбнулась, помахивая пачкой документов. - Вам нужно проверить, как это выглядит.
Она потянулась к Дэвиду. Это ей снится. Трудно было даже пошевельнуться: события вчерашнего дня вычерпали все ее силы без остатка. - Дэвид… - тихо простонала. Ответа не последовало. Она открыла глаза, не в состоянии даже протянуть руку. Простыня на его половине кровати была холодной.
Автобус номер 27 следует к хорошо известной конечной остановке. ГЛАВА 46 Фил Чатрукьян швырнул трубку на рычаг. Линия Джаббы оказалась занята, а службу ожидания соединения Джабба отвергал как хитрый трюк корпорации Американ телефон энд телеграф, рассчитанный на то, чтобы увеличить прибыль: простая фраза Я говорю по другому телефону, я вам перезвоню приносила телефонным компаниям миллионы дополнительных долларов ежегодно.
Мистер Беккер, - возвестил громкоговоритель. - Мы прибываем через полчаса. Беккер мрачно кивнул невидимому голосу. Замечательно.
Бринкерхофф опустился на стул, слушая, как стук ее каблуков затихает в конце коридора. По крайней мере Мидж не станет болтать. У нее есть и свои слабости.
Должно быть, Клушар ослышался. Беккер набрал первый из трех номеров. - Servicio Social de Sevilla, - прозвучал приятный женский голос.
Morality and religion involves the relationship between religious views and morals.Ellie C. 23.03.2021 at 14:45
Morality until recently has been seen as a brainchild of religion and thus an essential part of religion from which it is inseparable. It is therefore assumed that a religious person is essentially a moral person and that a moral life may not be possible without religion.Kirk S. 25.03.2021 at 05:38
Thanks to Sir Robert Hinde, Dr.Janetann 28.03.2021 at 23:09
PDF | The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for.Porter D. 29.03.2021 at 16:20
The original version of this report included public opinion data on the connection between religion and morality in China that has since been found to have been in error.