File Name: rules of games and sports .zip
Young people generally are often portrayed as being full of ambitions and hopes for the world and, therefore, important drivers of cultural change. The United Nations Population Fund describes well this expectation on young people as shapers of the culture of the future: As they grow through adolescence, young people develop their identity and become autonomous individuals.
They develop their own ways of perceiving, appreciating, classifying and distinguishing issues, and the codes, symbols and language in which to express them. Culture is everything. Culture is the way we dress, the way we carry our heads, the way we walk, the way we tie our ties. It is not only the fact of writing books or building houses. Sport is a universal element in all cultures and therefore we have chosen to include it as a theme for Compass.
Another reason for including sport is that sports provide young people with opportunities for social interaction through which they can develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for their full participation in civil society. Culture and sport are both human rights and related to various other human rights. They are also the grounds on which human rights are often challenged and abused, including those of young people.
No culture is homogenous. Culture is as difficult to define as it is to seize; cultures are ever evolving and changing. To paraphrase Heraclitus about not stepping twice in the same river, the culture in which we communicate today is not the same in which we communicated yesterday. Yet, in our eyes and perceptions, it is truly the same. Question: What new ideas or technologies have changed your culture in the last ten years?
The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights defines culture as follows: Culture […] encompasses, inter alia, ways of life, language, oral and written literature, music and song, non-verbal communication, religion or belief systems, rites and ceremonies, sport and games, methods of production or technology, natural and man-made environments, food, clothing and shelter and the arts, customs and traditions through which individuals, groups of individuals and communities express their humanity and the meaning they give to their existence, and build their world view representing their encounter with the external forces affecting their lives.
Some aspects of culture are highly visible, for instance the way people dress. Other aspects are mostly unconscious, almost instinctive. One way of thinking about culture is to use the metaphor of an iceberg. An iceberg has a visible part above the waterline and a larger, invisible section below.
In the same way, culture has some aspects that can be observed and of which we are conscious and other aspects that can only be suspected or imagined and reached through dialogue and introspection.
The risk is to take the part for the whole. Question: What aspects of your culture are, in your understanding, invisible to others? Culture is also the lens through which we view and interpret life and society.
Culture is passed over from one generation to the next one, while incorporating new elements and discarding others. Culture is also explained as a dynamic construct made by people themselves in response to their needs. Consider for a moment the arctic environment of northern Sweden; people there face different challenges from people living on the warm shores of the Mediterranean; consequently they have developed different responses — different ways of life — cultures.
Today, as a result of modern technology and globalisation, the two cultures have more in common than they did in the past, but nonetheless they still have many differences, including different notions of what it means to be European. Who we are or believe we are depends to a large extent on the cultures we grow up in, are exposed to or decided to embrace. Each of us, however, is also unique. It is the accident of where we are born that initially defines, for example, the languages we first learn to speak, the food we like best and the religion we follow, or not.
Identity, like culture, is a complex concept with parts above and below the line of consciousness that change with time and location. We can talk about personal identity, gender identity, national, cultural, ethnical, class or familial identity, and in fact about any other sort of identity. Identity is what makes each of us unique. However, this uniqueness is not the same throughout our lives; it is ever changing.
Culture in contemporary societies is a site of controversy and struggle over identity, belonging, legitimacy and entitlement.. Sports, and especially team games, are an important part of our lives, whether we are spectators or participants. For many, football is a never-ending source of conversation, fans feel a deep affinity with their team, and star players are given the status of heroes. The current fashion for people to want to look good, youthful, athletic and healthy is manifested by the number of fitness clubs opening up and the quantity of magazines published about slimming, while parks are filled with joggers.
Other activities which involve mental rather than physical exertion, such as chess, are also considered sports. There are sports to suit all tastes and temperaments and thus sport can truly be closely linked to our identity and culture at some point in our life.
If we look deeper into the underlying value and purpose of sports and games — and this includes the play of young children — it becomes apparent that all sports, whether football, spear throwing or yoga, have developed as a means of teaching necessary life skills, which is why sports are seen as an important part of the educational curriculum, both formal and non-formal. Cultural rights were first enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
Protecting and promoting cultural rights is important to the process of empowering individuals and communities. Having their cultural rights recognised helps communities to build their self-esteem and to be motivated to maintain their traditions while being respected for their practices and values.
The protection of culture in human rights law encompasses two concepts. Firstly, the right of people to practise and continue shared traditions and activities. Secondly, the protection of culture in international law covers the scientific, literary and artistic pursuits of society. The right of an individual to enjoy culture and to advance culture and science without interference from the state is a human right.
Under international human rights law governments also have an obligation to promote and conserve cultural activities and artefacts, particularly those of universal value. Culture is overwhelmingly applauded as positive in the vast majority of human rights instruments. Because culture affects all aspects of human life, cultural rights illustrate the indivisibility and interdependence of all rights in a more comprehensive fashion than do any other rights. Question: What other human rights are related to culture?
Sports and games are essential activities for the personal and social development, growth and well-being of children and young people.
The UNESCO Principles on International Cultural Co-operation also state that the wide diffusion of culture and the education of humanity, liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of man. Article I states: 1. Each culture has a dignity and value, which must be respected and preserved. Every people have the right and the duty to develop its culture. In their rich variety and diversity, and in the reciprocal influences they exert on one another, all cultures form part of the common heritage belonging to all mankind.
In , the adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People 12 was an impor- tant step in clarifying the concept of culture within human rights law. It affirms that indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples, while recognising the right of all peoples to be different, to consider themselves different, and to be respected as such, and affirms also that all peoples contribute to the diversity and richness of civilisations and cultures, which constitute the common heritage of humankind.
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People Article 8 1. Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture. States shall provide effective mechanisms for prevention of, and redress for: a Any action, which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities; Article 11 1.
Indigenous peoples have the right to practise and revitalize their cultural traditions and customs. This includes the right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their cultures, such as archaeological and historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies and visual and performing arts and literature. What does this principle mean in practice?
Practices such as bull fights, showing fanatical support for a football club, drinking warm beer, hunting whales or eating horse meat may be important practices to some but seem daft or even offensive to others.
For it is often the way we look at other people that imprisons them within their own narrowest allegiances. Amin Maalouf Question: Should all cultural practices be respected?
The United Nations takes a clear stand on this issue: one right cannot be used to violate other rights, as stated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: […] cultural rights cannot be invoked or interpreted in such a way as to justify any act leading to the denial or violation of other human rights and fundamental freedoms.
As such, claiming cultural relativism as an excuse to violate or deny human rights is an abuse of the right to culture. There are legitimate, substantive limitations on cultural practices, even on well-entrenched traditions. For example, no culture today can legitimately claim a right to practise slavery. Despite its practice in many cultures throughout history, slavery today cannot be considered legitimate, legal, or part of a cultural legacy entitled to protection in any way.
To the contrary, all forms of slavery, including contemporary slavery-like practices, are a gross violation of human rights under international law. Similarly, cultural rights do not justify torture, murder, genocide, discrimination on grounds of sex, race, language or religion, or violation of any of the other universal human rights and fundamental freedoms established in international law. Any attempts to justify such violations on the basis of culture have no validity under international law.
Boaventura Sousa Santos. Cultural diversity is a natural consequence of the combination of human dignity and human rights in their entirety. Human rights guarantee the freedom of thought, religion, belief, cultural expression, education, and so on. In the same way that the power of majorities cannot be used to suppress the human rights of minorities, the cultural rights of minorities cannot be used to justify violations of human rights, be they perpetrated by minorities themselves or by the majorities.
Respect for diversity ought to occur in a human rights framework and not be used as a reason for discrimination. Diversity is only possible in dignity; equality has to coexist with diversity.
No human rights declarations or covenants contain a specific mention of sport. Participation in sport can promote human rights through generating shared interests and values and teaching social skills that are necessary for democratic citizenship.
Sport enhances social and cultural life by bringing together individuals and communities. Sports can help to overcome difference and encourages dialogue, and thereby helps to break down prejudice, stereotypes, cultural differences, ignorance, intolerance and discrimination. Sport is often used as a first step to engage vulnerable and marginalised groups.
Street football is used in many inner city areas as a way for youth workers to make contact with alienated young people. The Homeless World Cup is an international football tournament where teams are made up entirely of homeless people. The event has been held annually since The most important thing is not to win but to take part.
Motto of the Olympic Games. Sportsmen and sportswomen are often admired for their status, achievements, and sometimes for their inspiring journey to success. Many young people look up to them for their efforts to fight for social justice and human rights. For example, Lilian Thuram is the most capped player in the history of the French National football team and known for his fight against racism and defence of young people.
Eric Cantona is also a famous former footballer.
A game is a structured form of play , usually undertaken for entertainment or fun , and sometimes used as an educational tool. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work such as professional players of spectator sports or games or art such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong , solitaire , or some video games. Games are sometimes played purely for enjoyment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in teams, or online; by amateurs or by professionals. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play.
After getting requests to gather the rules links and put them together, the A-Z List of Sports Rules was born. Keeping it simple for referees and umpires in all sports! Have fun! Rules of Archery — Olympic Channel. Laws of Badminton — World Badminton. Biathlon Rules — Biathlon Ontario.
Young people generally are often portrayed as being full of ambitions and hopes for the world and, therefore, important drivers of cultural change. The United Nations Population Fund describes well this expectation on young people as shapers of the culture of the future: As they grow through adolescence, young people develop their identity and become autonomous individuals. They develop their own ways of perceiving, appreciating, classifying and distinguishing issues, and the codes, symbols and language in which to express them. Culture is everything. Culture is the way we dress, the way we carry our heads, the way we walk, the way we tie our ties. It is not only the fact of writing books or building houses. Sport is a universal element in all cultures and therefore we have chosen to include it as a theme for Compass.
Many of the rules for the various sports include mini versions as well as the full game. These mini games are extremely valuable because they help students to.
Rules provide an agreement of understanding to competition. In sports, rules define what is allowed or not allowed to occur during situations on and off the court. Rules govern anything from wearing proper uniforms to how to keep score during games of different levels of competition. The rules of a game apply to players, coaches and officials, and vary among different sports and age groups.
Table tennis , also called trademark Ping-Pong , ball game similar in principle to lawn tennis and played on a flat table divided into two equal courts by a net fixed across its width at the middle. The lightweight hollow ball is propelled back and forth across the net by small rackets bats, or paddles held by the players. The game is popular all over the world. In most countries it is very highly organized as a competitive sport, especially in Europe and Asia, particularly in China and Japan. The game was invented in England in the early days of the 20th century and was originally called Ping-Pong, a trade name.
This section highlights why the rules and regulations of sports are important. Click through the list of categories to learn why we need rules and regulations in sport and games. Each listing contains a brief overview or summary. It covers the key rules and regulations of sports played around the United Kingdom.
Only the goalkeeper is permitted to handle the ball and may do so only within the penalty area surrounding the goal. The team that scores more goals wins. Modern football originated in Britain in the 19th century. The Football Association , formed in , codified the rules of the game and hosted the first cup competition between regional football clubs in Britain. It is a quadrennial tournament and is likely the most popular sporting event in the world, drawing billions of television viewers every tournament. Simple in its principal rules and essential equipment, the sport can be played almost anywhere, from official football playing fields pitches to gymnasiums, streets, school playgrounds, parks, or beaches. For a history of the origins of football sport, see football.
PDF | We have taken a look at the rules of games in order to acquire some knowledge Download full-text PDF sports are rather flexible).
The history of sports extends back to the Ancient world. The physical activity that developed into sports had early links with ritual , warfare and entertainment. Study of the history of sport can teach lessons about social changes and about the nature of sport itself, as sport seems involved in the development of basic human skills compare play. As far back as the beginnings of sport, it was related to military training. For example, competition was used as a mean to determine whether individuals were fit and useful for service.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called football include association football known as soccer in some countries ; gridiron football specifically American football or Canadian football ; Australian rules football ; rugby football either rugby union or rugby league ; and Gaelic football. There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played in many different parts of the world. During the 20th century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world. The various codes of football share certain common elements and can be grouped into two main classes of football: carrying codes like American football, Canadian football, Australian football, rugby union and rugby league, where the ball is moved about the field while being held in the hands or thrown, and kicking codes such as Association football and Gaelic football, where the ball is moved primarily with the feet, and where handling is strictly limited. Common rules among the sports include: .
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