File Name: khasra and rubella vaccination form .zip
Performed the experiments: HS R. Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates CFR are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals.
Mumps is a viral infection and most often a mild disease of childhood. It affects children between five and nine years of age. However, the mumps can affect both adolescents and adults. Mumps virus is present throughout the world. It spreads by airborne droplets released when an infected person sneezes or coughs and by direct contact with an infected person.
Mumps is a viral infection and most often a mild disease of childhood. It affects children between five and nine years of age. However, the mumps can affect both adolescents and adults. Mumps virus is present throughout the world. It spreads by airborne droplets released when an infected person sneezes or coughs and by direct contact with an infected person. In temperate climates the disease incidence is peak in winter and spring while in hot climates the disease may occur at any time of year.
Many countries experience epidemics at intervals of 2—5 years. Humans are the only known host for mumps virus. It primarily affects the salivary glands and it is sometimes called infectious parotitis.
In countries where large-scale immunization against mumps has been implemented, disease incidence has dropped dramatically. In India outbreaks and sporadic cases are reported throughout the year and from all regions of the country. Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, has reported about 45 outbreaks of mumps from the different parts of the country in Passive reporting of mumps cases is also done by Indian academy of pediatrics IAP through its web based infectious disease surveillance system IDSurv.
Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease. After an incubation period the period between infection and the appearance of signs of a disease of some two to four weeks mumps begins with non-specific symptoms such as myalgia, headache, malaise and low-grade fever.
Within a day of appearance of non specific symptoms, unilateral or bilateral one side or both side swelling of the parotid glands in cheek and jaw area develops with pain and tenderness. Swelling is first visible in front of the lower part of the ear then it extends downward and forward.
As swelling increases, the angle of the jawbone below the ear is not visible. After about a week, fever and glandular swelling disappear, and the illness resolves completely if there are no complications. People with mumps are usually considered most infectious for few days before and after onset of parotitis infection of parotid gland. Mumps is a viral disease caused by a virus mumps virus belongs to the genus Rubulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae.
It primarily affects the salivary glands. The incubation time the period between infection and the appearance of signs of a disease averages 16—18 days with a range of two to four weeks. It mostly affects the children in the age group five to nine years but the virus may also affect adults in whom complications such as meningitis and orchitis are relatively more common. Males and females are affected equally with parotitis.
Transmission of infection: Mumps is a contagious disease. Infection spreads through saliva or mucus from the mouth, nose, or throat by an infected person through direct contact, airborne droplet infection or fomites during:. Mumps virus spreads before the salivary glands begin to swell and up to five days after the appearance of swelling.
Natural infection with this virus is thought to confer lifelong protection. Complete blood cell count CBC - A complete blood cell count reveals a normal, decreased, or elevated white blood cell WBC count, with predominating lymphocytes in differential count.
Inflammatory markers -Sera inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR , can be elevated to show a nonspecific systemic inflammatory response.
Serum amylase is elevated in mumps parotitis amylase-S and in pancreatitis amylase-P. Serum lipase is elevated in pancreatitis. IgG titers can be detected by complement fixation, hemagglutination inhibition, or enzyme immunoassay. Interpretation of titer rise may have limitations due to potential mumps cross-reaction with other parainfluenza viruses.
For diagnosis, an assay for the detection of mumps-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in serum and oral fluid specimens is commercially available. Mumps virus can be isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, and fluid from the buccal cavity typically within the period of seven days before and nine days after, the onset of parotitis. Lumbar puncture - If meningitis or encephalitis is suspected, a lumbar puncture to obtain CSF cerebrospinal fluid for examination may be considered to clarify cause.
Auditory testing is indicated to assess for development of a hearing impairment. Scrotal ultrasonography must be performed when orchitis is clinically suspected to rule out testicular torsion. Conservative, supportive medical care is indicated for patients with mumps.
No antiviral agent is indicated for treatment of this viral illness, as mumps is a self-limited disease. No specific therapy for mumps exists. Analgesics acetaminophen, ibuprofen may be used for headaches or discomfort due to parotitis. Topical application of warm or cold packs to the swollen parotid area may be used to soothe the painful area. Acidic foods such as tomato, vinegar-containing food additives and liquids such as orange juice should be avoided to lessen oral pain and discomfort.
Stronger analgesics may be required for patients with orchitis with bed rest, scrotal support, and ice packs. Mumps without associated major complications can be managed on an outpatient basis. Patients diagnosed with mumps should be isolated for 5 days from the onset of symptoms to minimize the risk of infecting others by staying home from work or school and staying in a separate room if possible. Mumps can occasionally cause complications, especially in adults.
Complications include:. Encephalitis : Encephalitis occurs rarely 0. Although the case—fatality rate of mumps encephalitis is low, permanent sequelae, including paralysis, seizures, cranial nerve palsies, aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus, may occur.
Oophoritis: Females who have reached puberty may have inflammation in the ovaries oophoritis or breasts mastitis. Vaccination is the best way to prevent mumps.
Mumps vaccines live attenuated vaccine are available as a monovalent vaccine, a bivalent measles-mumps vaccine, or as a trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine MMR and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella MMRV vaccines. According to WHO, two doses of the vaccine are required for long-term protection against mumps.
The first dose of the mumps vaccine monovalent or MMR should be given at the age of 12—18 months and the second dose may be administered at range from the second year of life to age at school entry about 6 years of age. Centre for disease control and prevention, Atlanta CDC recommends two doses of MMR vaccine for children, starting with the first dose at 12 months of age, and the second dose at four to six years of age. IAP recommends MMR at 9 months of age measles containing vaccine ideally should not be administered before completing days or 9 months of age , second dose at months and third dose at years of age.
Insufficient childhood vaccination coverage can result in an epidemiological shift in the incidence of mumps to older age groups, potentially leading to more serious disease burden than occurred before immunization was introduced. You would need to login or signup to start a Discussion. Home Disease A-Z M. References - www. Patients typically complain of worsening pain when eating or drinking acidic foods.
Reference- www. Infection spreads through saliva or mucus from the mouth, nose, or throat by an infected person through direct contact, airborne droplet infection or fomites during: coughing, sneezing, or talking, sharing items, such as cups or eating utensils, with others, and touching objects or surfaces with unwashed hands that are then touched by others.
References- www. A light diet with plenty fluid intake is encouraged. It is advised to follow good hand washing practices. Death following mumps is rare and is mostly due to encephalitis.
Contraindications to mumps vaccine - Mumps vaccine live attenuated vaccine should not be administered to individuals with advanced immune deficiency. Mumps vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy. Allergy to vaccine components, such as neomycin and gelatin, is a contraindication to administration of the vaccine. Prevention of transmission - Patients diagnosed with mumps should stay away with others for at least 5 days from the onset of symptoms. Encourage the patient for good hand washing practices.
Encourage the patient to cover mouth and nose during coughing and sneezing with tissue, put used tissue in the trash can and if tissue is not available cover with upper sleeve or elbow, not the hands.
Drinks and eating utensils of patient should not be shared by others. Frequently touched surfaces, such as toys, doorknobs, tables, counters should be kept clean.
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Rubella is a contagious disease caused by a virus. For some people—especially pregnant women and their unborn babies —rubella can be serious. Make sure you and your child are protected from rubella by getting vaccinated on schedule. Young children who get rubella usually have a mild illness, with symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, sore throat, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Older children and adults are more likely to have a headache, pink eye , and general discomfort before the rash appears.
Measles, or rubeola, is a viral infection that starts in the respiratory system. It still remains a significant cause of death worldwide, despite the availability of a safe, effective vaccine. There were about , global deaths related to measles in , most of them in children under the age of 5, according to the World Health Organization WHO. Measles cases have also been increasing in the United States in recent years. Symptoms of measles generally first appear within 10 to 12 days of exposure to the virus. They include:.
Hey parents, baby vaccination is an important schedule recommended worldwide for protection against known diseases. I have made a chart of immunization schedule which I followed for my baby and plan to follow. Doctors charge around Rs.
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Measles is an infectious illness caused by the rubeola virus. It spreads either through direct contact with a person who has the virus or through droplets in the air. Measles is a highly contagious disease that can lead to life-threatening complications.
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