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Respiratory System Of Human Body Parts And Functions Pdf

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The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx , larynx , trachea , bronchi and lungs.

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates , two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream , and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing.

Respiratory System: Our Avenue for Gas Exchange

Human respiratory system , the system in humans that takes up oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The human gas-exchanging organ, the lung , is located in the thorax, where its delicate tissues are protected by the bony and muscular thoracic cage. The lung provides the tissues of the human body with a continuous flow of oxygen and clears the blood of the gaseous waste product, carbon dioxide. Atmospheric air is pumped in and out regularly through a system of pipes, called conducting airways, which join the gas-exchange region with the outside of the body.

The airways can be divided into upper and lower airway systems. The transition between the two systems is located where the pathways of the respiratory and digestive systems cross, just at the top of the larynx. The upper airway system comprises the nose and the paranasal cavities or sinuses , the pharynx or throat , and partly also the oral cavity , since it may be used for breathing. The lower airway system consists of the larynx, the trachea , the stem bronchi, and all the airways ramifying intensively within the lungs, such as the intrapulmonary bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolar ducts.

For respiration, the collaboration of other organ systems is clearly essential. The diaphragm , as the main respiratory muscle, and the intercostal muscles of the chest wall play an essential role by generating, under the control of the central nervous system , the pumping action on the lung. The muscles expand and contract the internal space of the thorax, the bony framework of which is formed by the ribs and the thoracic vertebrae. The contribution of the lung and chest wall ribs and muscles to respiration is described below in The mechanics of breathing.

The blood, as a carrier for the gases, and the circulatory system i. The nose is the external protuberance of an internal space, the nasal cavity. It is subdivided into a left and right canal by a thin medial cartilaginous and bony wall, the nasal septum.

Each canal opens to the face by a nostril and into the pharynx by the choana. The floor of the nasal cavity is formed by the palate , which also forms the roof of the oral cavity. The complex shape of the nasal cavity is due to projections of bony ridges, the superior, middle, and inferior turbinate bones or conchae , from the lateral wall.

The passageways thus formed below each ridge are called the superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatuses. On each side, the intranasal space communicates with a series of neighbouring air-filled cavities within the skull the paranasal sinuses and also, via the nasolacrimal duct , with the lacrimal apparatus in the corner of the eye.

The duct drains the lacrimal fluid into the nasal cavity. This fact explains why nasal respiration can be rapidly impaired or even impeded during weeping: the lacrimal fluid is not only overflowing into tears, it is also flooding the nasal cavity. The paranasal sinuses are sets of paired single or multiple cavities of variable size.

Most of their development takes place after birth, and they reach their final size toward age The sinuses are located in four different skull bones—the maxilla, the frontal, the ethmoid, and the sphenoid bones. Correspondingly, they are called the maxillary sinus , which is the largest cavity; the frontal sinus; the ethmoid sinuses ; and the sphenoid sinus , which is located in the upper posterior wall of the nasal cavity.

The sinuses have two principal functions: because they are filled with air, they help keep the weight of the skull within reasonable limits, and they serve as resonance chambers for the human voice. The nasal cavity with its adjacent spaces is lined by a respiratory mucosa. Typically, the mucosa of the nose contains mucus-secreting glands and venous plexuses; its top cell layer, the epithelium , consists principally of two cell types, ciliated and secreting cells.

This structural design reflects the particular ancillary functions of the nose and of the upper airways in general with respect to respiration. They clean, moisten, and warm the inspired air, preparing it for intimate contact with the delicate tissues of the gas-exchange area.

During expiration through the nose, the air is dried and cooled, a process that saves water and energy. Two regions of the nasal cavity have a different lining.

The vestibule , at the entrance of the nose, is lined by skin that bears short thick hairs called vibrissae. In the roof of the nose, the olfactory bulb with its sensory epithelium checks the quality of the inspired air. About two dozen olfactory nerves convey the sensation of smell from the olfactory cells through the bony roof of the nasal cavity to the central nervous system.

Human respiratory system Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Ewald R. Author of The Pathway for Oxygen. See Article History. The respiratory tract conveys air from the mouth and nose to the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the alveoli and the capillaries.

Britannica Quiz. You may know that the human brain is composed of two halves, but what fraction of the human body is made up of blood?

Test both halves of your mind in this human anatomy quiz. The lungs serve as the gas-exchanging organ for the process of respiration. Sagittal view of the human nasal cavity. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.

Respiratory System

Place your hand over your chest, take a deep breath, and then let it out. Of course you already know that your lungs fill with air when you breathe, but did you know that your respiratory system does more than simply move oxygen into and out of your lungs? The structures of the respiratory system interact with structures of the skeletal, circulatory, and muscular systems to help you smell, speak, and move oxygen into your bloodstream and waste out of it. Image from Human Anatomy Atlas. Click here to explore the images from this blog post in 3D using Human Anatomy Atlas or later! The lungs are asymmetrical, conical in shape, and have a spongy texture. If you look in the image below, you'll see a treelike structure in each lung.

Human respiratory system

The respiratory system also respiratory apparatus , ventilatory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood.

Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange. In addition to air distribution and gas exchange, the respiratory system filters, warms, and humidifies the air you breathe. Organs in the respiratory system also play a role in speech and the sense of smell. Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity.

Top 5 Functions of the Respiratory System: A Look Inside Key Respiratory Activities

Human respiratory system , the system in humans that takes up oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The human gas-exchanging organ, the lung , is located in the thorax, where its delicate tissues are protected by the bony and muscular thoracic cage. The lung provides the tissues of the human body with a continuous flow of oxygen and clears the blood of the gaseous waste product, carbon dioxide.

Respiratory system (pulmonary system) anatomy

The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels. The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste gases like carbon dioxide. The respiratory system has many functions.

The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs , which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe. The lungs work with the circulatory system to pump oxygen-rich blood to all cells in the body. The blood then collects carbon dioxide and other waste products and transports them back to the lungs, where they're pumped out of the body when we exhale, according to the American Lung Association. The human body needs oxygen to sustain itself.

Human respiratory system

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The reader states the functions of the respiratory system and relates the structural organization of the system to its functions. Describes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the atmosphere and relates gas exchange to the metabolism of the tissues of the body.

Human respiratory system , the system in humans that takes up oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The human gas-exchanging organ, the lung , is located in the thorax, where its delicate tissues are protected by the bony and muscular thoracic cage. The lung provides the tissues of the human body with a continuous flow of oxygen and clears the blood of the gaseous waste product, carbon dioxide.

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5.01 Respiratory System Function

2 Comments

Amrieslalun 24.03.2021 at 17:23

The primary function of the respiratory system all parts of the body. lungs. These tubes branch off to each lung. Diaphragm: a strand of human resp alveoli.

Oliver L. 25.03.2021 at 10:21

The respiratory system also helps us to smell and create sound.

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